01 Civilization

01 Civilization - Civilization Creativity Begins to Flow...

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Unformatted text preview: Civilization Creativity Begins to Flow Basic changes Hunter-Gatherers to Civilization Hunter-Gatherers Civilization • Small units (family or expanded families) • Little contact with other groups (little trade) • Advancements for personal or family use • Cities as the focus of progress • Both local and long- distance trade • Advancements for society as well as personal use Hunter-Gatherer to Farmer “Hunting and gathering is a matter of taking what nature offers….When improved methods are applied to hunting, the result is often just depletion of the prey… “Agriculture consistently rewarded the creative tinkering with high returns in the form of increased yields or improved crops and livestock. “Moreover, agricultural endeavors lent themselves to creative interactions with other industries.” Hunter-Gatherer to Farmer Example of modern hunter-gathering: Fishing Why Man Creates The Edifice of Civilization The FLOW of Civilization Essential Elements for Civilization F O W L ood in abundance from fixed location abor specialization rder and organization of society riting system • Allowed localization of population into cities • Allowed increased population density • Led to focused technological developments: Agriculture Plow Wheel Materials Domesticated Food Domesticated Food The key step was grain domestication . 56 wild grasses possible (seed size, seed retention, nutrition, storage, etc.) 32 varieties in Mediterranean Eurasia (versus 11 max elsewhere) Hence, civilization began in the areas where grain domestication was easiest. Labor Specialization Brought Technology Technology was intuitive and rarely needed science. (Except since the 20th C.) Labor specialization in science, art, and business was tied to technology. Technology and . . . Science Techné means technology and also art in ancient Greek. Art Technology helped artisans make improved products. Business Labor Specialization Tools Stone Age Labor Specialization Products Stone Age Labor Specialization Technology Materials Development Bronze: A mixture of copper and tin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 35 48 78 Hardness Metal • How would you discover bronze?...
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01 Civilization - Civilization Creativity Begins to Flow...

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