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Ch 1 1.9.12 - Copy

Ch 1 1.9.12 - Copy - Chapter 1 Neurotransmitters chemicals...

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Chapter 1: Neurotransmitters: chemicals involved in communication among brain cells. Effortful attention: analysis of the mechanisms of developmental change involves the rosle of brain activity, genes, and learning experiences in the development of effortful attention. Studies of the brain activity of people performing tasks that require control of thoughts and emotions show that connections between the anterior cingulate (in the brain, sets and attends to goals) and the limbic area (in the brain, controls emotional reactions, and are especially active) Sociocultural context: how does it influence development? Sociocultural context- the physical, social, cultural, economic, and historical circumstances that make up any child’s environment Influences all aspect of the children’s development Most important are the people with whom they interact (parents, brothers, etc) , and the physical environment, as well as the institutions that affect the children’s lives One method to understand the influence of the sociocultural context to compare the lives of children who grow up in different cultures In most cultures, sleeping in the same bed as the mother is normal as an infant to young child. As children grow out of infancy, night time separation of child and parents became a complex ritual in america Half of children in America need an object, like a doll or bear Socioeconomic status- a measure of social class based on income and education Exerts a large influence on children’s lives. Children from poor families do less well than others. In infancy, they are more likely to have serious health issues. In childhood, they are more likely to have social/emotional or behavior issues. In childhood and adolescence, they tend to have smaller vocabularies and lower IQs, lower standardized reading and math scores on standardized tests Obstacle to poor children’s development, however, many surmount the obstacles with the help of adults in the families.
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