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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6: Development of Language and Symbol Use Caroline Kirkby Symbol Language development Components Use of language: how do they use it in a social context? Requirements? Brain-language relations Systems for representing our thoughts, feelings, and knowledge and for communicating them to other people Expands our cognitive and communicative power It frees us from present Sociocultural context, nature-nurture, individual differences Childrens language comprehension and basic linguistic competence is equivilant to average college freshman Language comprehension- understanding what others say or sign or write Language production- speaking or writing or signing ot others Lc precedes language production Acquiring new language = learning sounds and patterns, its specific words, and ways in which the language allows the words to be combined Generativity- the idea that through the use of the finite set of words in our vocabulary, we can put together an infinite number of sentences and express an infinite number of ideas Phonemes- the elementary units of meaningful sound used to produce language, structre of words and sentences Phonological development- the acquisition of knowledge about the sound system of a language, the mastery of a language Morphemes- the smallest unit of meaning, composed of one or more phonemes, what do noises represent?? Semantic development- the learning of the syntax of a language, meaning Syntax- the rules of the language that specify how words from different categories (nouns, verbs, adj) can be combined Syntactic development- the learning of a language Pragmatic development- the acquisition of knowledge about how a language is used, you need to speak in full sentences to get people ot understand better Metalinguistic knowledge- an understanding of the properties and fxn of language that is, an understanding of language as language, children lack this ASL is a true language, remarkably similar to spoken language Language is species specific, only humans Species universal, virtually all young humans form language Animals can communicate with one another Koko, the gorilla, was trained to use sign language, but lacked syntactic structure Most successful sign-learning nonhumans were two great apes of the bonobo species. Kanzi learned to communicate via keyboard Children at age 5 understand thousands of words, while chimps have a limited vocabulary Only the human brain acquires a communicative system with the complexity, structure, and generativity of language Language processing involves a substantial degree of functional localization Hemispheric differences in language functioning Young infants show greater left hemisphere activity when listening to speech but greater response in right hemisphere to non speech sounds Degree of hemispheric specialization for language increases over time Chapter 6: Development of Language and Symbol Use Critical (sensitive) period for language development Bilingualism The process of language...
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2012 for the course PSY 310 taught by Professor Strauss during the Spring '10 term at Pittsburgh.
- Spring '10
- Developmental Psychology