Chapter 13 - Chapter 13: Mendel and the Gene Genetics-...

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Chapter 13: Mendel and the Gene Genetics- focuses on the inheritance of traits. Mendel Heredity- inheritance, or the transmission of traits from parents to offspring Trait- any characteristic of an individual, ranging from overall height to the primary structure of a particular membrane protein Model organism- a species used for research because it is practical and because conclusions drawn from studying it can be applied to other species. In Mendel’s case, it was peas. Could control the parents involved in mating Easily recognizable traits Sperm cells are produced in pollen grains Under normal conditions, garden peas self-fertilize. (a flower’s pollen lands on the female reproductive organ of the same flower) Mating by transferring the pollen from one pea plant to another with a brush is cross fertilization and helped Mendel control the matings Mendel had seven traits: seed shape, seed color, pod shape, pod color, flower color, flower and pod position, and stem length Phenotype- the observable traits of an individual, such as eye color or pod shape pure line - consists of individuals that produce offspring genetically identical to themselves when they are self pollinated or crossed to another member of a pure line population hybrid- the offspring of parents from two different stains, population or species parental generation- the adults used in an initial experimental cross. They produce offspring called the F 1 Generation. F 1 stands for “first filial”; fili and filia mean son and daughter from latin roots A mating between parents that each carry two different genetic determinants for the same trait is a monohybrid cross. in a monohybrid cross, the recessive trait had reappeared in the f 2 generation after disappearing completely in the f 1 generation recessive trait- phenotype that appears latent or hidden temporarily, only in homozygous individuals. dominant trait- determines the phenotype of a heterozygous individual. It is not powerful or more superior, it does not necessarily have a higher fitness than do individuals with a recessive phenotype. Dominant and recessive identify only which phenotype is observed in individuals carrying two different genetic determinants for a given trait. F 2 generation is 3:1 ratio of dominant to recessive Reciprocal cross- a breeding experiment in which the mother and father’s phenotypes are the reverse of that examined in a previous breeding experiment. Particulate inheritance- heredity determinants for traits do not blend together or acquire new or modified characteristics through use. Determinants maintain their integrity from generation to generation. Do not blend
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Chapter 13 - Chapter 13: Mendel and the Gene Genetics-...

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