Chapter 13

Chapter 13 - Chapter 13- Population Genetics Mutation=...

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Chapter 13- Population Genetics Mutation= source of genetic variation o Differences among individuals, hair and eye color, results from genetic factors o Polymorphic- the occurrence of more than one distinct phenotype or genotype in a population o DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid Nucleotides- Adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine Codons- specific sequences of three nucleotides o Mutations DNA sequences are subject to errors Most common is nucleotides substitutions Deletions, additions and rearrangements also occur New amino acids may display different properties May stay the same- silent mutations Don’t affect fitness of individual o Alleles Alternative forms of the same gene DNA sequences that differ by one or more nucleotide substitutions 2 forms of the beta-hemoglobin gene Genetic Markers o Most DNA consists of identical sequences of nucleotides repeated over and over o Microsatellite- tandem repeat of sequences of 2, 3, or 4 nucleotides Minisatellites- useful type of variation present in repetitive sequences that vary from individual to individual in the number of repeats they contain o Genetic markers- tools used to study genetic variation and the dispersal of individuals within a population Changes in population Movements of individuals between pops
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Chapter 13 - Chapter 13- Population Genetics Mutation=...

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