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Chapter 9 Handout - N309 Global Health Womens Health...

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1 Women’s Health N309 Global Health Alexandra A. Garcia, PhD, RN The University of Texas at Austin Objectives Describe importance of women s health Describe determinants of women s health and related maternal mortality Describe important health conditions facing women, especially in the childbearing years Describe success stories in improving women s health Maternal-Child Health (MCH) Cornerstone of Global Health Safe motherhood + Child survival MCH and Women’s Health Shorter-term: ! Maternal mortality & morbidity reduction affects women s health ! Maternal health affects fetal & infant survival Lifespan perspective ! Mother s health from her childhood affects her health during pregnancy ! Diseases during pregnancy (hypertension, diabetes) are sentinel events for later women s health (pregnancy-chronic disease linkage) Benefits of Breastfeeding Reduced maternal illnesses ! Post partum hemorrhage ! Type 2 diabetes ! Breast cancer ! Ovarian cancer ! Postpartum depression ! Overweight Better spacing of births Reduced costs Improves maternal/child bonding More convenient Eco-friendly Reasons for Focusing on Women s Health Health problems specific to women Health disparities between men and women Women’s health affects whole family’s health ! High maternal mortality and infant mortality in developing countries Relatively low cost solutions available DALYs high with death/disability in childbearing years
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2 Women s Biological Risks Iron deficiency anemia Pregnancy related conditions ! Hemorrhage ! Exacerbated health conditions (e.g., malaria ! Uterine prolapse and obstetric fistulas Increased susceptibility to STIs Uterine and breast cancer More diabetes and heart disease Women s Social Risks Preference for males over females ! Abortion of female fetuses ! Poorer nutrition · Less breastfeeding and lower quality food Sexual abuses Early marriage Fewer legal rights, less control over life Unequal pay and more poverty Fewer educational opportunities Which MDGs related to women’s health? Sex and Gender Sex is biological Gender is cultural Maternal Health Indicators Maternal mortality rate ! A preventable event – See http://www.rhmjournal.org.uk/publications/SafeMotherhood.pdf ! In the UK, every maternal death is studied to learn and prevent future deaths % of births attended by skilled health personnel ! Rural and urban % births by Cesarean section Cesarean Section Rates
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