Chapter 11 Handout - 10/30/11! N309 Global Health...

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10/30/11 1 N309 Global Health Communicable Diseases The University of Texas at Austin School of Nursing Objectives ! DeFne terms concerning communicable diseases ! Discuss challenges to preventing and treating infectious diseases ! Examine selected communicable diseases ! TB, HIV/AIDS, dengue, malaria, sleeping sickness, in±uenza ! Explore international communicable disease status; resources for travelers
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10/30/11 2 What are Communicable Diseases ? ! Illnesses caused by infectious or parasitic agents Modes of Transmission ! Communicable diseases can be spread directly or indirectly ! Direct Transmission = Person-to- person ! Blood and body Fuid contact ! Sexual contact ! Blood-borne ! Mother-to-child ! Shared needles ! Airborne or droplet inhalation
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10/30/11 3 Indirect Transmission ! Vector-borne = Animals, insects, birds (ex. Malaria, onchocerciasis) ! Vehicle-borne = ! Food-borne (ex. Salmonella, e. choli, botulism, hepatitis A) ! Water-borne (ex. Cholera, rotavirus) ! Inanimate objects ! Soil ! Blood products Food-Borne Transmission ! Intoxication ! e.g., Bacterial growth: botulism ! Infection ! Parasites ! e.g., Trichinosis, toxoplasmosis ! Viruses ! e.g., hepatitis A ! Bacteria ! e.g., salmonellosis, Escherichia coli
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10/30/11 4 Vector-Borne Transmission ! Usually not a person-to-person stage ! e.g., Lyme disease from Ixodid tick and Borrelia bacteria ! Rocky Mountain spotted fever from dog and wood ticks and Rickettsia bacteria ! Malaria from Anopheles mosquito and Plasmodium protozoa Modes of Transmission ! Traumatic contact (ex. rabies) ! Non-traumatic contact (ex. Anthrax)
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10/30/11 5 Epidemiology Review: Rates ! Case: An individual with a particular disease ! Incidence ! # of new cases in a time period ÷ total # people at risk in that time period ! Prevalence ! # of total existing cases in a time period ÷ total # people at risk in that time period Occurrence of Communicable Diseases ! Outbreak ! Sudden rise in the incidence of a disease ! Epidemic ! 'The occurrence of more cases of disease than expected in a given area… ` ! Outbreak and Epidemic often used interchangeably ! Key epidemics through time (interactive graph): ! http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/ stories/hongkong/epidemicsa.html
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10/30/11 6 Occurrence of Communicable Diseases ! Pandemic ! World-wide epidemic ! Endemic ! Infectious disease always present in an area Epidemics ! Concentrated ! Less than 1% of the population of adults is infected ! Generalized ! More than 5% of adults infected
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10/30/11 7 Epidemiological Triangle Includes vectors Bacteria, virus, etc. causing disease Person Epidemiological Triangle is a model used to show communicable disease as a composite state of 3 variables: Agent, Host, and Environment Prevention Levels Applied to Communicable Diseases ! Primary prevention ! General health promotion strengthen host’s immune response ! Specifc Protection ! Immunizations ! Hygiene and sanitation ! Secondary prevention ! Screening ! Early diagnosis and treatment ! Tertiary prevention ! Maximize Function aFter disease
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This note was uploaded on 03/17/2012 for the course N 309 taught by Professor García during the Fall '11 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Chapter 11 Handout - 10/30/11! N309 Global Health...

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