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Marketing - Marketing is defined by the AMA as"the activity...

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Marketing is defined by the AMA as "the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large." [1] This replaces the previous definition, which still appears in the AMA's dictionnary: "an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders." [2] It generates the strategy that underlies sales techniques, business communication, and business developments. [3] It is an integrated process through which companies build strong customer relationships and create value for their customers and for themselves. [3] Marketing is used to identify the customer , satisfy the customer, and keep the customer. With the customer as the focus of its activities, marketing management is one of the major components of business management . Marketing evolved to meet the stasis in developing new markets caused by mature markets and overcapacities in the last 2-3 centuries. [ citation needed ] The adoption of marketing strategies requires businesses to shift their focus from production to the perceived needs and wants of their customers as the means of staying profitable . [ citation needed ] The term marketing concept holds that achieving organizational goals depends on knowing the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions. [4] It proposes that in order to satisfy its organizational objectives, an organization should anticipate the needs and wants of consumers and satisfy these more effectively than competitors. [4] The term developed from an original meaning which referred literally to going to a market to buy or sell goods or services. Seen from a systems point of view, sales process engineering marketing is "a set of processes that are interconnected and interdependent with other functions, [5] whose methods can be improved using a variety of relatively new approaches." ] Further definitions The Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as "the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably." [6] A different concept is the value-based marketing which states the role of marketing to contribute to increasing shareholder value . [7] In this context, marketing is defined as "the management process that seeks to maximize returns to shareholders by developing relationships with valued customers and creating a competitive advantage." [7] Marketing practice tended to be seen as a creative industry in the past, which included advertising , distribution and selling ,Merchandise support. However, because the academic study of marketing makes extensive use of social sciences , psychology , sociology , mathematics , economics , anthropology and neuroscience , the profession is now widely recognized as a science, allowing numerous universities to offer Master-of- Science (MSc) programmes. The overall process starts with marketing research and goes through
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