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US Foreign Policy until 1898

US Foreign Policy until 1898 - US Foreign Policy until 1898...

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US Foreign Policy until 1898: “European Game” Imperialism established framework for the conduct of international relations throughout the 19 th and early 20 th centuries Once US gained sovereignty, it took an increasing part in global competition that provoked rivalry with Europe US wanted to extend territorial reach over European colonies and prevent other powers from challenging this expansion Imperialism: “Entailed policy, practice, or advocacy of the extension of control by a nation over the territory, inhabitants, and resources of areas outside the nation’s boundaries” Goals: 1. To gain access to economic benefits (land, labor, minerals) 2. To increase political strength and military capability Ideological Justification: Religious missions of the 16 th century Spain Civilizing mission of France “white-man’s burden” by England borne by the 19 th century Imperialism spawned from international rules—principle being the balance of power Peace of Westphalia 1648—assumed international politics would consist of nation-states Rules: Balance of power was to prevent domination by a single European nation Sovereignty of established European nation-states were primary actors in the global arena Nations focused their competitive energy on expansion, not war Imperial holdings became integral elements in the calculation of the balance of power
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Methods of Imperialism: Conquest and Incorporation of territory: After Peace of Westphalia, most nations shyed away from this Threatened to violate balance of power and prospect of incorporation raised complex judicial and philosophical questions EX: Policy of France Subjugation and colonization Imperial dominions attained special status as subordinated appendages, did not lead to effective enlargement of national boundaries “Sphere of Interest” imperial power would exert de facto hegemony through informal means economic domination or in politics the installation of client regimes or protectorates did not require the enormous expenditures of military, administrative, and financial resources that formal colonies required disadvantage: insecurity precisely because they were informal spheres subject to intrusion by rival powers stability: only if major powers agreed to recognize each other’s spheres of domination Enter the US:
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