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POL 241 FINAL EXAM STUDYGUIDE Factors of Institutionalization o Congressional Dominance: 1789-1900 Founders held congress very important Whigs: Whig party was founded on the idea of legislative supremacy, Whig presidents were only to serve 1 term Congress has now changed o Congress develops into a highly institutionalized, professional body: Well boundness: Low turnover rates o First 50 years of the Republic’s history, had a higher turnover rates, served a term or two, and then left—service was seen as a public duty, no one wanted to stay long up until the Civil War, and then it began to stabilize into what it is today 2010 election, higher turnover then we have seen in decades o Lower levels of turnover, you begin to identify with individuals, and they know the ropes and are able to get things done Argument against term limits: When you have limited term it is hard to get things done When you have interest group involvement, state legislatures get comfy Complexity and Specialization: 1789 up until civil war: o Business in the House/Senate was done on the floor, not complex committee system we have today Later part of the 19 th century congress turned to committees o Little happens on the floor today besides introduction and voting o As it becomes more complex, need people who have been around a while who know the system Development of Universal rules rather than pluralistic: Had high turnover, had a new Congress, and would start over with the rules As turnover lessens, rules became inflexible and insensitive to turnover Rules have now been in place for 100 years o 1995 was the last shake up when Republican majority swept into the House/Senate now highly professionalized body: not sensitive to citizen legislation Running for Congress:
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o Congressional Elections: how to become a member: 435 districts for the House running for re-election every 2 years o Barriers to Running for Congress: Formal Constraints: Constraints in the constitution—age requirements, how old, if you are a citizen o 25 yrs. old, 7-9 years living in the US Credibility: Are you a match for your district or state? District—House: drawn in certain ways, districts are fairly homogenous, not drawn for a good match of the US, drawn politically to have as many likeminded individuals States tend to be heterogeneous Districting Conditions: Drawn by computers, doesn’t mean it’s logical Drawn for advantages and disadvantages o Drawing districts: Gerrymandering —drawing districts to benefit the party o Eldridge Gerry drew a district that looked like a salamander, drawn to benefit the party o Process happens every 10 years—have a caucus, see what parts grew and shrunk NE has lost in population, rust belt has lost in population (Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania) o Have to redraw districts to evolve reality—Ohio will lose districts b/c lower population o Democrats lost state wide reps, so Republicans will draw
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2012 for the course POL 241 taught by Professor Chriskelly during the Fall '10 term at Miami University.

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