Chapter 4 - Chapter 4: Identity o In-groups, out-groups o...

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Chapter 4: Identity o In-groups, out-groups o Social cleavages—various categories of identity create divisions between groups in a society, us-them divisions o National identity, race, ethnicity (the sense of belonging to an ethnic group), tribal and clan identity, religion, sex (appropriate term for biological differences between men and women)/ gender (a term that refers to social understandings of traits, roles, and behavioral differences between men and women and to differences between them in political attitudes and behavior; “gender gap”—differences in political behavior where women are less conservative than men—opposite in Eastern European countries), class, intrastate regional identity, transnational regional identity Gender has become a more prominent social divide because of globalization, which has brought a greater awareness of the treatment of women around the world All can shape political outcomes Complementary and Cross-Cutting Identity Divisions o Complementary—identity divisions that coincide with one another for large numbers of individuals; also known as complementary or accumulative social cleavages Involve ethnic majorities and minorities; often speak two different languages, may believe they are racially different from each other, may have different religions, may live in different regions Likelihood of conflict is great in cases of strong complementary identity o Cross-Cutting Identity Divisions—identity divisions that don’t coincide with
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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4: Identity o In-groups, out-groups o...

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