DEP3103 Exam 1 - DEP3103 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 o Big...

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DEP3103 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 o Big names in history Plato (808 BC) Believed that government, who were the most moral, intelligent, and best suited, should raise the children. He was trying to raise the most productive members of society. Brainwash in a positive manner. Children will grow up to be moral and intelligent. Problem? Individual differences between children. Can’t raise all kids the same. If it was your child, you’d want to be able to instill your own morals in them. Takes away family’s free will and tradition. Locke Tabula Rasa – blank slate o All children are born the same, what makes them are their experiences Emphasized environment and early experiences Rousseau Innate morality (there is something there, not a blank slate, and it’s good! Children are born good) Leave children alone and they will develop well Darwin Natural selection, adapt to environment or you’ll die Traits that survive are passed on Recent type of psychology: evolutionary psychology G. Stanley Hall Science! Started testing kids and experimenting. Initially seen as profound. Use questionnaires First person to recognize adolescence Francis Galton 1875 – noticed that some twins were more similar than others. Noticed that some twins are different. Founder of behavioral genetics. Monozygotic (identical, share 100% of their genes) and Dizygotic (fraternal, about as similar as a brother and sister that aren’t twins) Piaget Cognitive developmental theory o Schemas – we have these outlines for things and as we grow up and learn, these outlines change Blueprints for processing information Assimilation – processing information that fits a schema Accommodation – changing the schema to fit new information o Learning theories Classical Learning through association Realized that conditioned responses to preciously neutral stimuli could be taught o Pavlov’s dogs: dogs salivating due to bell. Bell was associated with food Operant Operant conditioning – B.F. Skinner o Learning based on what follows a behavior If something good happens after a behavior, the behavior is likely to repeat o Reinforcement
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Increases the probability that a behavior will be repeated Positive reinforcement o Presentation of a stimuli that increases the likelihood that a behavior will recur Negative reinforcement o Removal of a negative condition o Punishment Application of unpleasant consequences to decrease the likelihood that a behavior will recur Social Social learning theory – Bandura’s theory that individuals are greatly influenced by observing and imitating other people o Occurs via vicarious reinforcement and modeling Vicarious reinforcement: Learning by watching the consequences of other people’s behaviors Modeling: individuals learn new behaviors, the contexts appropriate for those behaviors, and their consequences
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DEP3103 Exam 1 - DEP3103 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 o Big...

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