18 - Hormonal Regulation of Food Intake, Stanley, S.

18 - Hormonal Regulation of Food Intake, Stanley, S. - 18 -...

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18 - Hormonal Regulation of Food Intake Adipose Tissue Hormones: Leptin: signals via transmembrane receptor of cytokine family o influences on energy hemeostasis and neuroendocrine and immune function o product of ob gene expressed mainly in adipocytes and also gastric epithilia and placent o circulation reflects energy stores, and acute energy balance o 3 different isoforms of leptin receptors, long, short, secreted o Long: binds JAK-Kinases and STAT 3, results in effects on food intake SOC3 upregulated by leptin, block leptin actions reporter genes, causes leptin resistance expressed in ARC, VMH, DMH and LHA o Short: transports leptin across blood-brain barrier o Secreted: bind circulating leptin, modulates activity and availability o lack of circulating leptin hyperphagia, obesity, neuroendocrine and immune disturbance o deficiency in receptors can also cause obesity o leptins primary role may be as a hormone of starvation rather than one of plenty o Obesity can result from leptin resistance, or too little leptin Adiponectin: secreted from adipose, up to 1000 times as much as insulin or leptin in circulation o Regulate energy homeostasis o Plasma concentration inversely related to adipose
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o increased after gastric partition surgery in obese humans o effect on energy expenditure is mediated by hypothalamus o could contribute to pathogenesis of obesity o Adiponectin levels neg correlated with insulin resistance o Treatment with adiponectin, increases insulin sensitivity, reduce body weight, decrease lipid levels Resistin: increases insulin resistance Pancreatic Hormones: Insulin o increases rapidly after food intake, concentrations adipose-dependent o positively correlated with long term energy balance o Insulin injections decreases food intake, and decreases weight and alters expression of hypothalamic genes known to regulate food intake o Insulin not synthesized in brain, must cross BBB through receptor
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18 - Hormonal Regulation of Food Intake, Stanley, S. - 18 -...

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