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20 - Control of growth by the somatotropic axis, Butler, A.A.

20 - Control of growth by the somatotropic axis, Butler, A.A.

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Article #20 – Control of Growth by the Somatropic Axis Development: coordinated regulation of cell proliferation, cell death (apoptosis), cell migration and differentiation Growth: integration of intrinsic genetic programs with environmental cues Coordinated via variations in nutrition Regulation of GH secretion and its action at target tissues most important determinant of body size GH: Primary growth hormone Regulated by nutrition and by hormonal and genetic milieu that controls the timing and rate of growth Little/no effect on fetal growth Cytokine peptide, released from somatotroph cells in anterior pituitary In males – GH secretion in discrete pulses with low interpeak levels In females – less pulsatility, high interpeak levels GH is also produced in the brain, lymphocytes, placenta, mammary tissue, and pineal gland GH may have local paracrine/autocrine growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and inhibitory hormone somatostation interact to regulate GH secretion also done by FFA, leptin and neuropeptide Y malnutrition glucocortoid levels are elevated resistance to GH on growth and on serium IGF-I levels hypothalamic and peripheral factors are responsible for controlling GH release and action
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