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WrittenAssignment4_HIS-114_RaymondMilek - 1 Raymond Milek...

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1 Raymond Milek SID#0483682 12/7/2011 American History II HIS-114-OL Thomas Edison State College October, 2011 Semester Written Assignment 4 1) Describe and explain the development of Truman's containment policy and analyze the application of the policy from 1945 through 1954. After World War II, the relationship between the United States and Soviet Union was not harmonious. Even though the two nations were allies during the war, their camaraderie was merely the result of having Germany as a common enemy. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and U.S. President Harry Truman both envisioned their own separate postwar worlds. “Once the Allies had overcome a common enemy, the prewar mistrust and antagonism between the Soviet Union and the West resurfaced over their very different visions of the postwar world.” (Roark and others, Pg.653). On one side, Stalin wanted Germany to pay for postwar reparations and to expand Soviet power throughout the world. “Above all, he wanted friendly governments on the Soviet Union’s borders in Eastern Europe.” (Roark, 653). On the other side, Truman and the U.S. wanted an American-like, capitalist world where trade with foreign countries could flow freely, which was in stark contrast to Soviet communism and its influence over certain nations. Truman hoped for a cooperative relationship with the Soviets, so long as they followed U.S. demands to cease their expansionism. Stalin was not going to simply acquiesce to U.S. demands, and contentions over many nations would soon transpire. Knowing the U.S. had the upper-hand as the world’s most powerful nation, and having the belief that the Soviets would back down in the face of superiority, a plan by diplomat George F. Kennan to “respond with ‘unalterable
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2 counterforce’” was devised (Roark, 654). This plan would come to be known as “containment”. Less than one year after the end of WWII, in early 1946, containment—among other conflicts between the U.S. and the Soviets—would mark a major turning point in what would eventually become known as the Cold War. In 1947, Truman was insistent upon pushing his containment policy into action. In a speech to Congress, in early 1947, Truman pushed for U.S. financial assistance for Greece and Turkey to avoid communist occupancy. This speech would later be known as the “Truman Doctrine” (u.s.history.com). In February, 1947, Britain announced it could no longer financially support Greece and Turkey. “In the next year, America poured $338 million into Greece. A quarter of it went in food aid, and a quarter in economic aid, but half of the money was spent on military aid, including dive bombers, and napalm bombs. Two hundred and fifty army officers, led by General James Van Fleet, advised the Greek army – and brought in a policy of forcibly removing thousands of Greeks from their homes to isolate the rebels. In Turkey, $80 million was spent in military intervention, a further $4.5 million on roads, and almost nothing on food or
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