Lecture5 - The Internet Protocol ECE-CSE 861 Introduction...

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1 ECE-CSE 861: Introduction to Computer Communication Networks Ness B. Shroff ECE & CSE Lecture 5 The Internet Protocol The Internet Protocol (IP) was developed to provide for the connectionless transfer of packets across an inter-network. In IP, the component networks are interconnected by special packet switches called gateways or routers . IP routers direct the transfer of IP packets across the Internet. IP currently provides best-effort services. The design of IP is to keep the operation within the Internet simple by relegating complex functions to the edge of the Internet. For example When congestion occurs inside the internet, packets are discarded and the end-to-end mechanisms at the edges of the network are responsible for the recovery of packet losses and/or for adapting to congestion The connectionless orientation means that the routers do not have to keep any state information about specific flows or users This allows IP to scale to very large networks and has been the core reason for its success. We will discuss IP in more detail when we talk about routing. Transmission Control Protocol The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) was designed to provide reliable transfer of a stream of information over the connectionless IP protocol. TCP operates over a pair of end-hosts (source destination pair) across an IP internet TCP provides for error and congestion control on an end-to- end basis that can deal with lost or highly delayed packets. It also reduces the rate at which information is transmitted into an internet when congestion is detected. Again TCP exemplifies the design principle of the Internet, which is to relegate the complexity to the edge of the network. More on TCP, when we study flow/congestion control . TCP/IP Network Architecture The TCP/IP network architecture is a set of protocols that allow communication across diverse networks These protocols form the basic building blocks of the current Internet The TCP/IP architecture consists of four layers Application layer Transport layer Internet layer Network Interface Layer
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2 Application Layer Provides services that can be used by other applications. For example, services have been provided for rlogin , email , ftp , http , etc. The Application layer incorporates the functions of the top three OSI layers (Application, Presentation, and Session) Application layer programs are meant to run directly over the Transport Layer Transport Layer Provides two basic types of service TCP for reliable connection-oriented transfer of byte streams UDP (User Datagram Protrocol) which consists of best effort connectionless transfer of individual messages provides no mechanism for flow control or error recovery. Question: What would UDP be useful for?
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Lecture5 - The Internet Protocol ECE-CSE 861 Introduction...

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