Chapter 3 - carbohydrates - CHAPTER 3 Molecules Carbon...

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CHAPTER 3
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Molecules Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Formed by plants via photosynthesis Stored in plants as starch CHO
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Dictated by the arrangement and number of carbon molecules Two types of CHO Simple CHO Monosaccharides and disaccharides Complex CHO – simple sugars linked together Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides
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Monosaccharides (one) Glucose – most important Fructose Galactose Disaccharides (two) Sucrose = glc + fructose Maltose = glc + glc Lactose = glc + galactose
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Similar to fiber in structure The molecular structure of polysaccharide will determine: Solubility Digestion How it reacts with heat Glucose storage: In animals – glycogen (broken down glc) In plants - starch
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Oligosaccharides Short chains 3 to 10 sugars maltodextrine Corn syrup Polysaccharides Long chains >10 sugars Starch Glycogen
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Dietary Fiber – dilutes toxins in GI No digestible Plant sources – complex CHO in plant cells and walls Two types – soluble and insoluble Photo Courtesy of Renee Comet/ National Cancer Institute
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Soluble Dissolves and absorbs water Thickening agent – increase transit time (speeds up) Oats, barely, legumes, f/v, gums and pectin Insoluble Will not dissolve in water Bulking agent – decreases transit time Whole grains, nuts, seeds and vegetables
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Classified as: Non-nutritive Nutritive
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