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Lab06 - G UITARS D RUMS AND C OMB F ILTERS Electrical...

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G UITARS , D RUMS , AND C OMB F ILTERS 6 Electrical Engineering 20N Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California, Berkeley H SIN -I L IU , J ONATHAN K OTKER , A NDREW L EE , H OWARD L EI , AND B ABAK A YAZIFAR 1 Introduction In this lab, we will explore further applications of the filters that we have seen so far in lectures, discussion sections, and previous lab sessions. In particular, we will use a comb filter to create the sound of a guitar string being plucked, and we will use other filters to make this sound as realistic as possible. Also, with a small modification, we can use the same model to create drum sounds. Along the way, we will explore dif- ferent features of the impulse response and the frequency response of these filters. The methods discussed in much of this lab were formulated by Karplus and Strong [ 1 ]. 1.1 Lab Goals Implement further practical applications of discrete-time filters in LabVIEW . Explore relationships between sampling frequency, fundamental frequency, and delays. Get acquainted further with subVIs and LabVIEW LLBs to make block diagrams cleaner and clearer. 1.2 Checkoff Points 1. Pre-Lab Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (a) Sound Mechanics of String Instruments: Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Phase Response of Comb Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (c) Moving between Frequency Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (d) Checkoff Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (10%) (e) Submission Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (f) Submission Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. In-Lab Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (a) Guitar Hero: A Good Guitar Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (45 minutes, 15%) (b) That Can’t Be Real (Get It?): A Better Guitar Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (30 minutes, 15%) 1
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(c) I Can’t Believe It’s Not a Guitar String: An Even Better Guitar Simulation . . . . (45 minutes, 15%) (d) Creating a SubVI (e) I Need Some Feedback (f) Marching To A Different Drummer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (30 minutes, 10%) 3. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Pre-Lab Section 2.1 Sound Mechanics of String Instruments: Theory String instruments, such as a guitar string, create vibrations that are similar to the simple sine wave model, but have more than one mode of vibration , as illustrated in Figure 1 . Figure 1 Vibration Modes of a Guitar String. Independent section: Sound Mechanics of String Instruments From Lab 2, we explored the nature of a sine wave and how it can represent a sound wave. We can generate tones to play a song with the simple sine wave model of sound, however they sound extremely mechanical since they are pure spectrally. Figure 3: Four modes of vibration of a guitar string. String instruments, such as a guitar string, create vibrations that are similar to the simple sine wave model, however have more than one mode of vibration illus- trated in figure 3. Each of these modes of vibration produces a different frequency. The top one in the figure produces the lowest, frequency, called the fundamental , which is typically the frequency of the note being played, such as 440Hz for A-440.
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