cultgrafx - 304 APPENDIX a Disinterested and uninterested A...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–17. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
Image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
Image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 8
Image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 10
Image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 12
Image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 14
Image of page 15

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 16
Image of page 17
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 304 APPENDIX a # - Disinterested and uninterested A great many English speakers do not know how to use these adjectives correctly. ”Disinterested” means ”without prejudice,” while ”uninterested” means ”without interest.” For example, a ”disinterested observer” is not fl'iE same thing as an ”uninterested observer.” You probably would seek out a disin— terested observer to settle a dispute, whereas you probably would not want an uninterested observer to settle anything. - Due to and because of English speakers often incorrectly use these two phrases inter- changeably ”Due to” is an adjective phrase meaning ”attributable to” and usually follows a form of the verb ”to be.” ”Because of” is a prepositional phrase that means ”as a result of.” For example, ”The cracks in her walls were due to the Northridge earthquake” is correct, but, ”The cracks in her walls . ”in were because of the Northridge earthquake” is incorrect. Likewise, ”She had cracks in her walls because of the Northridge earthquake” is correct, whereas, "She had cracks in her walls due to the Northridge earthquake” is incorrect. Oral and verbal These two words are very confusing for some English speakers. ”Ural” means ”spoken,” while ”verbal” means ”in words” and can refer to words either spoken or written. For example, ”An oral agreement” means an agreement that was only spoken, not written, while ”a verbal agreement” could mean either an agreement that was spoken or one that was written. To avoid confusion, use ”oral” to mean ”spoken” and ”written” to mean ”written.” Avoid the use of ”verbal.” 1'“I | Graphics and Icons Graphics and icons are cultural; when you write for translation, you must use ”safe” graphics and icons, that is, those that communicate across cultures and do not offend any cultures. The rule of thumb is not to use any body parts or animals in icons and graphics. Use androgynous stick-like figures so as not to offend cultures that do not tolerate graphical representations of women. Table 131.3 lists some graphical elements and WRITING FOR OTHER CULTURES 305 icons and their cultural associations. For a complete discussion of icons and iconic communication, ace the resourCes in the Further Reading seclionat the end ofthis appendix. Some icons have poth associations such as the yellow stars Hitler made Jews wear, the pink triangles he made homosexual men wear, and the black triangles he made lesbians wear. Jesse Jackson and his Rainbow Coalition use a multicolored flag as their icon, and homosexuals use a similar multicolored flag as their icon. Some cultures look upon cats, dogs, and rabbits as food while others look upon them as domesticated companions. Some cultures consider beef a fine meal, while Hindus hold sows sacred. This section has addressed just a few of the many icons and graphical elements that appear in technical information. 1When writing for other cultures, do your homework. Choose your icons carefully. Do not let otherwise excellent information suffer from a cultural misconception. nan A3 Cultural Associations of Icons ape Cluistian orderlinem, virtue,r patriotism, subordination universal hope, steadiastneas, stabitiqt tranquillity Chinese orderliness, virtue, patriotism, subordinafim't Greek harvest Hindu transitorinem universal indush‘iousness Celtic magic, otherworld, fertility; marriage Chinese mischief, conceit, mimicry Christian malice, cunning, lust, sin Hindu hen-revoleme, gentleness Celtic magic, otherworld, fertility, marriage Chineae peace, concord (continues) 3116 APPENDIX A Table 151.3 Cultural associations of Icons (Continued) Symbol Culture Association Christian ambivalence, temptation, sin Greek health, immortality universal fertility, joyousness, knowledge, wisdom, divination, luxury, deceit, death arrow Amerindian sun’s rays flitistian martyrdom, suffering Greek sun’s rays, darts of love, union, light, pain, disease Ifindu earth, storms, fertility, healing rain Islamic wrath and punishment universal phallus, masculinity, Lightning, virility, power ax African magic Buddhist severance of life and death Celtic divine being, chief, warrior Chinese justice, judgment, authority, punishment Christian martyrdom, destruction Egyptian sun Hindu fire Scandinavian divinity. chief, warrior universal power, thunder; fecundity, sacrifice, help hear Amerindian supernatural power, strength, fortitude Celtic sun Chinese bravery, strength Christian devil, cruelty; greed Iapanese benevolence, wisdom, strength universal new life hee Celtic wisdom Chinese industry, thrift bell bird book ball Christian Egyptian Greek Islamic Roman universal Buddhist Chinese Hebrew Hindu Teutonic Buddhist Chinese Christian Egyptian Hindu Islamic Japanese Scandinavian Taoist ui‘iiversal Buddhist Chinese Islamic universal Buddhist Celtic Christian Hebrew WRITING FOR OTHER CULTURES 3i}? diligence, purity, diasfity, courage, economy, prudence, cooperation, sweetness birth, death, resurrection, industry, chastity, harmony. royalty industry, prosperity, immortality, purity faith, intelligence, wisdom, harmlessness misfortune {swarm}, justice, sobriety, monarchy immortality; rebirth, industry, order, purity wisdom respect, veneration, obedience, hannony vestments, four elements, thunder, lightning rank, dignity nobility auspiciousness longevity, good fortune winged souls soul intelligence faith creativity freedom sun, cosmic powers transcendence, thought, imagination wisdom, language, expression scholarsl'I-ip creativity learning, wisdom morality, ego, god of the dead divine power and strength brute force might of Jahveh tmtinuesl 393 APPENDIX a Table A:- lCultural Associations of loons (Continued) # Symbol Culture Association Iranian soul of the world, germ of all creation butterfly Celtic soul, fire Chinese immortality, leisure, joy Greek immortality Japanese feminine vanity Maori soul universal soul, immm‘tality, rebirth, resurrection candle Cluistian divine light Hebrew divine presence universal light, illumination, uncertainty cat Amerindian stealth Celtic chthonic powers Chinese night, powers of evil, transformation Christian Satan, darkness, lust, laziness Egyptian growth of seed in womb Greece-Roman liberty Iapanese transformation, repose witchcraft familiar and disguise of witches circle Amerindian universe, cosmos Buddhist existenoe Clfirwse heavens, perfection Christian chum}- Egyptian sun Greek universe, fime, fate Hindu existence Islamic heaven, divine light Taoist supreme power cock compass conch universal Chinese universal Buddhist Chinese Islamic Mayan cornucopia cube dagger :log universal Chinese Hebrew Islamic Mayan universal universal African Amerindian WRITING FOR OTHER CULTURES 3H9 totality; wholeness, simultaneity, perfectionr self, infinity, eternity carnal passion and pride courage, valor, benevolence, faithfulness vigilanoe, weakness, repentance vigilance, foresight fertility royalty undemorld courage, vigilance, dawn right conduct justice, source of life oratory, learning royalty, prosperous voyage ear that hears divine words waters abundance, bounty, fertility earth deity Holy of Hoiies stability earth truth, perfection, completion phailus, masculinity, war fire—bringer rain—bringer, fire—maker, messenger (can his ass} 31"] APPENDIX A Table A3 Cultural Associations of Icons (Continued) Swim! Culture Association Buddhist guardian Celtic healing, heroes, war gods Chinese fidelity, devotion, prosperity Christian fidelity, watchfuinesa Islamic impurity Japanese protection door universal hope, opporhinity, initiation duck Amerindian mediator Chinese conjugal happiness and fidelity, felicity, and beauty Japanese conjugal happiness and fideiity, felicity, and beauty Hebrew inrmnrtality eagle Amerindian revelation, mediator, day dustralian aboriginal deity Aztec celestial power Buddhist vel'dcle of Buddha Celtic healing waters Chinese sun, authority, warriors, oourage, tenacity, keen vision, fearlessness Christian spirit, ascension, aspiration, spiritual endeavor Greek spiritual power, royalty, victory, favor Hebrew renewal Scandinavian wisdom Sumero-Semitic noon sun _;: ear é universal spiral, birth earth Amerindian cosmic center Celtic corruptible body WRITING FOR OTHER CULTURES 311 Chinese feminine, yin principle 1 universal universal genetrix finger, first and fourth raised universal protection against evil, insult if pointing at a person finger, on mouth universal silence finest Pei-“ins universal magic, insult finger, three raised Christian blessing finger, two raised Greek blessing, help, strength universal teaching, judgment fish Buddl'tist freedom from restraint, Emancipation from desires and attachments Celtic foreknowledge of the gods Chinese abundance, wealth, regeneration, harmony Christian baptism, immortality, resarrection Egyptian phallus, creativity; fertility Greek love, fecundity, power of waters Hebrew food of the blessed Hindu wealth, divinity, power of waters Iapanese love Roman funerary, power of waters Scandinavian love, fertility universal phallus, fecundity, creation, powers of water flame Amerindian dwelling place of the Great Spirit Aztec ritual death Buddhist wisdom Chinese divinity, danger, anger, ferocity, speed {cumin ass} 312 APPENDIX A "liable 131.3 Cultural Associations of Icons (Continued) Symbol Culture Christian Egyptian GreaoorRornan Hebrew Hindu Iranian universal fleur—de-lis giobe hammer hand universal Christian Graeco—Roman universal Chinese Christian Greece—Roman Hindu Iapanese universal Celtic Christian hand, both clasped Chinese " .:u-:-!:;"-'-.'.:.-'-'-"--' '-. ' Association religious fervor, divine revelation inspirafion hearth, inspiration voioe of God, divine revelation transcendental light, knowledge, T.visdom, destruction place of divinity, soul of man light, heat, divinity, hell transformation purificaiim'r, renewal, impregnation, power, protection, visibility, passion, immolation, fusion, passage from one state to another light, life, trinity, roval’r},r dominion lav £aith fortune, fate world, self-containment, power, imperial dignitj,r sovereign power passion of Christ vengeance thunder wealth, good fortune masculinity, forces of nature, justice, avenging ravs of sun power and might of God friendliness, allegiance hams}- hand, I'I' hand,h hand, c hand, r hand, r' hand, o; hand, p: WRITING FOR OTHER CULTURES 313 hand, both raised Lmiversal supplication, wealmess, ignorance, dependence, surrender hand, both together Buddhist meditation, receptivityr Hindu meditation, receptivityr hand, both together in front of heart Buddhist wisdom, method Hindu wisdom hand, clenched universal threat, aggression hand, concealed Chinese respect, deference hand, covering eyes universal shame, horror hand, folded universal repose, humility hand, holding hag Christian Iudas lscariot, betrayal hand, left Chinese jP'lJ‘l, fenfiifiniff universal receptivity, surrender hand, on breast universal supplication hand, open Islamic benediction, adoration, hospitality-r hand, pointing at foot Hindu deliverance (auntie Hes} 314 APPENDIX A Table A3 Cultural Associations of Icons {Continued} Symbol {Sultan's Association Ixii'.'-.'-;.I:'-.-:;""oi-'=3'_:'.II\ .fi'ri' .E' '-.'_E . .: _._. F: __..-.-_-.:_ :_ 25'1": ,. _-,L :I..._ _.._-.-. _-:"".'2:-: :., .__.- .Ej: .._._-'= _. ___-'-__.‘_'-_3'-";‘;_Jtarté 55”}- _:-;:::,R_‘.&ifl?_ hand, raised Buddhist protection Hindu peace, protection universal adoration, worship, prayer, salutation, amazement, horror hand,r raised palm outwards Christian benedictim hand, raised to head universal thought, care hand, right Buddhist power over earth Cholese yang, masculinity universal power hand, right palm upwards Buddhist giving Hindu giving hand, right raised Buddhist dauntlessness Hindu dauntlessneso hand, three fingers raised Christian t_rinil:_'5.r hand, two clasping one another universal union, friendship, allegiance hand, hm crossed at wrists universal binding WRITING r—on DTHER CULTURES 315 hand, with three fingers or mutilated universal phases of the mom hare African moon Amerindian father, guardian, creator, transfonner Celtic hunting Chinese moon, longevity Christian fecundity, lust mfiversal rebirth, rejuvenation, resurrection, intuition heart Aztec center of man, religion, love Buddhist essential name of Buddha, pmity, hidestructibility Celtir generosity, compassion universal center of being, compassion, understanding, love key Christian keys to heaven Hebrew raising of fire dead, birth, fertilizing rain Iapanese love, wealth, happiness knife Buddhist vengeance Cl'u'istian martyrdom lion Buddhist defender of law, bravery, spiritual zeal Chinese valor, strength, energy Christian pmver, might Egyptian protection Hebrew might, cruelty Iranian royalty, light Iapanese king of beasts Taoist withdrawal, emptiness of the nu‘nd monkey Buddhist greed Chinese ugliness, trickery (continues) 316 APPENDIX A Table A3 Cultural Associations of Icons {Continued} Symbol Culture network universal owl Amerindian Christian Egyptian Hebrew Hindu Iapaneae Mexican palm tree Arabian Chinese Christian Hebrew Christian Egyptian Islamic rainbow African Amerindian Buddhist Christian Islamic Association vanity, luxury, the devil divine power complex relationship beyond time-space sequence wisdom evil, crime, death darkness, solitude, mourning, bad news death, night, coldness blindness god of the dead death night, death tree of life retirement, dignity, fecundityr righteousness righteous man learning awakening of the soul intellect guardian of treasures ladder of aecess to other world highest state before nirvana union of heaven and earth Pardon, reconciliation four eIements WRITING FOR OTHER CULTURES 31? serpent skull Ell.“ Scandinavian universal African Amerindian Buddhist Celtic Chinese Christian Egyptian Greek Hebrew Hindu Islamic Japanese Scandinavian Buddhist Christian Hindu universal African Amerindian Buddhist Celtic Chinese Christian Hebrew Hindu Islamic Japanese Scandinavian Taoist universal bridge, the way transfiguration, lineavenlj,r glorj.r royalty, immortalityr lunar and magic power, eternity, harbinger of death anger healing destruction, deceit, cunning Satan, temptation, craffiness wisdom, power, knowledge resurrection, healing, wisdom evil, temptation, sin cosmic power, chaos, fire life god of thunder and aims malevolent forces of the univer5e renunciation of life varlitij,r of worldlv things god of the dead death feminine power, supreme deity universal spirit light feminine power male principle ruler, light, love divine will, guidance entrance to knowledge, immortalityr afleeeing, all—knowing emblem of ]apan all-seeing celestial power cosmic power [can tin use} 313 APPENDIXA Table A3 Cultural Assodations of Icons (Confined) Mexifin terrible aspect of the Great Mother Color As Chapter En, Accessing Information, indicates, colorisculturai. The onlyr universal colors are natural mappings such as red apples and green leaves. Table as lists some colors and their cultiual associations? Table M Cultural Associations of Color Color Cultme Association black Amerindian mourning Buddhist bondage Chflslian death, despair, sorrow, mounting. evil Egjrpfian rebirth, resurrecfion Hebrew understanding Hindu downward movement 1Elihiestern death, evil blue Buddhist mums, wisdom WRITING FOR OTHER CULTURES 319 Chinese heaven, spring. wood Christian truth, eternity, faith Hebrew mercy Japanese villains,r Middle Eastern virtue, faith, truth Western rnale. calm, authority gold Celtic fire Hindu light, life, truth sIar Christian death Hebrew wisdom universal mourning, depression, penitence green Amerindian peace Buddhist life (pale green—death} Cajun Voodoo business Christian immortality, hope Hebrew victory Hindu death Islamic holiness Japanese future, youth, energyr Middle Eastern fertility, strength Western safe, sour lavender Cajun Voodoo conqueror Western homosexuality, gay pride orange Cajun Voodoo control Chinese love, happiness Iapanese love, happiness Hebrew splendor pink Cajun Voodoo love Western femaleness, helplessness {continues} 32“ APPENDIX A Table A4 Cultural Associations of lColor (Continued) Color Culture 1-T1yl - : I .'" I' 1—... purple Cluistian universal Amerindian Cajun 1|rhodoo Celtic Christian Hebrew Hindu Japanese white Amerindian Buddhist Cajun ihodoo Chinese Egyptian Hebrew Hindu Japanese Westem yellow Amerindian Cajun Hoodoo Hebrew Japanese Middle Eastern Association truth, humility; penitence royalty, power, pride in? power death. disaster in}; happiness, lurk love, power, dignity, martyrdom severity activity, creativity angel:r danger danger birth, life redemption protection death, mourning purity; joy, innocence, 1ul’irginitlir mourning ior self-illumination, light death, mourning purity, virtue death steady work honor, royalty beauty grace, nobiiit}; happiness, prosperityr caution, cowardice ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern