culturalhowgrafxlie - documentsn Multiple translations can...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–9. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 2
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 4
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 8
Background image of page 9
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: documentsn Multiple translations can fit in a single document if only labels and brief annotations need to be translated. Mmmfigta‘dip Whammhmamlemi Ewfirmfimhadaladaradayhaiaauiha WmMWmemrflm_ Graphic with multilingual labels 0 Reduce translatiorii Several of my clients tell me they pay up to US. $0.60 per word for translation of highly technical documents. If- they: translate to more than three or four, languages, they spend more translating than originating the documents. Even though we cannot say everything graphically, we can still reduce dependence on verbal language and lessen the possibility for erroneous translation (Jones et a1. 1992). ' V 0 Ease learning); It is easier to see and understand ’ than to see, translate, and then understand because visual images are less ambiguous and more memorable. 0 Improve comprehension. Those who read in a V second language. rely more heavily on graphics than those who read in their first language ' because the understanding imparted'by the ' graphic helps readers translate the text = (Rochester 1992). l 0 Take advantage of an-already existing. body (“of recognizable Symbols. Graphics can help us” directreaders through our documents, much like the signs in international airports. International graphics- ,How SHOULD we PLAN INTERNATIONAL GRAPHICS? . I ~ » Failure to communicate can result when baSic cultural values differ. Every culture has artistic traditions and expectations that embody the basic values efthe culture at large; ' Technical Communication, Fourth Quarter 1993’ V ' tail!“ Ancient Egyptian Ancient Greek art Asian art relies on art emphasrzed exemplified a harmony of order and balance and opposites. ' predictability. rationality. From Symbols, Signs & Signets by Ernst Lehner Before starting your graphic, think about your. readers. How are their expectations shaped by the experiences of growing up in a particular culture and by Speaking and reading a particular language?- Take Reading Habits into Account The South African Chamber of ‘Mines designed a ’ wordless message for illiterate miners instructing them to remove rocks from mine car tracks. , How would you read this? How would an'illiterate read it? The sign failed. some workers began piling rocks onthe tracks. They had read the sign right to left ' (Dreyfuss 1984). Why? People from many nations 'Who are illiterate donot know that you are supposed to read left to right. Neither do people whose first lanage is Arabic or Hebrew. . ‘ The Viewers’ accustomed reading directionaffects the d'irectiOn in'which they scan a~ graphic and‘the _ ~ order in Which they read a sequence of graphics. In another example, in the Middle East an ' advertisement for laundry detergent showed dirty ‘ I clothes on the left, a box of the detergent in the middle, and clean clothes on the right (Hartshorn 1989). Why did it fail?rlt failed because-Arabic is read. primarily right to left. I p _ It is not always easy to determine reading direction. Even languages like Arabic and Hebrew that are read left to right reverse direction for proper nouns (Merrill and Shanoski- 1992). I have even seen a Taiwanese newspaper with text'reading left to right, right .to left, and top to bottom in columns read from 16ft to right and in columns read from I' right to left——all on the same page. 683» ‘ If you} are communicating to a multi-cultural audience where reading direCtions differ, make the . graphic read top to bottom and use arrowsto show sequence and to direct the eye around the graphic. Assume - Show and Consider viewing direction Values-Can also be associated with direction. For instance righteousness and power are associated with the right hand in Western cultures. In the ' Chinese tradition, however, honor dwells on the left hand, and on the right self-destruction and violence (Cooper 1978),. Where could this concept become an issue? Consider an advertisement comparing your product with your cOmpetitor’s. Where would you place your competition’s product in relation to your .own to ensure a favorable effect? ‘ Bad ‘ 1 Good Western values associated with direction 'Consid'er Artistic ConVentions and Expectations Both visual and verbal communication depend on a common foundation of shared COnventions. Studies. , of African peoples unfamiliar with pictorial methods found that both- children and adults required training to recognize familiar objects shown in photographs and line drawings, and. they perceived depth only with difficulty and only when overlap was present (Deregowski 1974). On the other hand, Australian I aborigines objected to overlap used to show depth ' ’ and perspective in: pictures of birds because the "overlap hida wing or foot (Gombrich-1969). For the most part, if your audience uses computersand other high-tech products, they understand the standard graphicalforms common in Western technical and business documents. It is in ' l the use of symbols and the way objects are depicted v where problems arise. The only insurance against cultural miscommunication is testing with expected Viewers. - ,684 Allow for Different Learning Styles and Rhetorical ’ Preferences V Around the world the preferred style‘for . documents varies. Stereotypes abound: Germans prefer details and background information. The French favor a more formal and authoritative approach. Americans want it short and sweet. Step - by step. To'the point. The Japanese would kindly appreciate instructions that are presented accurately yet With polite deference to the reader. Middle Eastern students are more familiar with ' p ' grandiloquent and florid prose, passionate with style. In China the master or teacher lays out philosophical principles——it is the responsibility of the student to infer the details. For a good general reference on cultural differences, see Hall (1990). . I suggest a three-part appro’achto meet theiSe diverse learning. strategies and expectations; ‘ "3 Avoid eXtremep. Moderation minimizes the confusion and offense any graphic may offer. Strive for a balance between formality and ‘ informality. It might be as simple as rounding the'edges of a shape, but maintaining the precision of the lines. ' are Formal Moderate Informal I 0 Maintain‘neutral‘itya. Graphics are inherently more, neutral in tone and emotion than text. ' Avoid techniques that give the graphic a ‘ definite personality '(ROChester 1992). For instance, someviewers may find these icons too cute: n a o‘ ' Design your ' graphic so that it can be’read‘i‘n'different ways for different purposes. An eXample is a map e with numbered items along a suggested route. ' Those who want a step—by-step prOcedure can follow the route; but those who prefer to learn Technical Communication, Fourth Quarter 1993 i 1 i l We can suggest a reading order without compelling it. on their own can explore. Conceptual overviewsand maps that illustrate the general hierarchy or organization of a system or a document are especially helpful (Spragins .1992). Keep in mind, though, that some cultures use different methods of categorization or may even lack a' strong concept of categorization .(Halio 1992). There is a fine line between’making an image recognizable and making it cultura-lly'specific. Pick graphics your international readers can identify; but take. care to include only those details that enhance recognition. ‘ Suppress Unimportant Details Details that could inform oneaudience can confuse or distract another. For international symbols, design objects “sufficiently abstract that the audience does not have a preconception of their meaning” (Grove 1989, p.141); V ' There is a fine line between making an'image ’ recognizable and making» it culturally specific. Pick graphics your international readers can identify; but take care to include onlythose details that enhance retognition. Some suggestions: ‘ 0 Disguise or .diminishnational differences}, like the shape of power plugs (Vogt 1986) or the on— off position of power switches (Potosnak 1988). _' .- _‘Hidejau.dii§nce7specific detailg‘g-‘by carefully V choosing the vieWpoint-. ‘ V ' 0. Use aniicon' or simplified drawing Of a realistic . drawing orphotog'raph (Vogt 1986). . 0 lObscure or omit textual labels ondevicgs. For instance, show keyboards with blank keys. ‘ Technical Communication, Fourth Quarter 1993 Indicate particular function keys by position, not by name or label (Jones et al. 1992). 0 Show allpossible instances if you, cannot disguise variable features, such as plugs on ’ power cords. (Jones et a1. .1992). R we, North American @nwersal European You may haoeto Show all instances. In the end you must use your good judgment and test with actuallusers. W HAT" ARE SOME PITFALLS TO AVOID? The symbols we may use to ‘encode meaning or 1‘ to decorate a graphic can have vastly different . associations in different cultures. We must ensure that the different associations do not contradict our . intended meaning. We have discussed general ways to internationalizeour graphics; nbw here are some specific problem areas. Initials-and Punctuation Marks Minimizelthe use of letters, punctuation marks, ' and other verbal symbols. These signs, though common in Western Europe, would not work as well in China, whose language uses a different set of ' characters. Avoid initials and punctuationmarks. 685 countries. Somebody is the lapels and somebody else the seat of the pants. - If you must use such a national emblem, make sure you show it in the Correct orientation and V drawn to the correct'proportions. Which is'the French flag in this drawing? ‘ The answer is neither. The one on the left has the colors in the right order but the proportions are wrongé—in both cases the bars are the same width. They should be blue 30%, white 33%, aha red 37%. A trifle? Perhaps not to a Frenchman. It is at least a graphical typo. Colors Because the symbolic meaning of color varies from culture to culture, ignorance about color associations may cause us to miscommunicate. . Designers for the United States IndianService,_ for instance, inadvertently biased voting in a Navajo election by using color Codes for the candidates. To ' l the Navajo, colors are ranked, with blue being good- and red bad. Later, the colors were replaced by photographs of the candidates (Hall 1959) . Colors have cultural associations that come from religion,literature, and graphic arts (Cooper 1978; Dreyfuss 1984; Thorell and smith 1990; White 1990). Some examples: . TABLE 1 . Cultural assOCiations of color Culture Red I Yellow Green Blue Europe and , Danger ' Caution, Safe Masculinity North ' ' cowardice S t ' American our 3:1: . _ Authority Japanese Anger, Grace, Future Villainy ‘ - danger nobility Youth, Childish, . energy I v gaiety Chinese, Joy, Honor ‘ festive > ' ' occasions ' RoYalty ; Arabic Happiness » Fertility, Virtue, ' Prosperity strength faith, truth Conventional meanings of colors often vary. In the U.l<., first place is often awarded a red ribbon, ‘ not blue as is common in the U.S. (Jones et al. 1992). Does this mean you should never use colors in international documents? No, colorcan prove especially valuable, as in making logical categories ' explicit. If you use color, follow these guidelines: 0 Make the design awork in black and white first. Then add color to make it'work better. ' ’ 0 Use. Colorpnly'in technical and businesses documents and there only where the context-3, does not trigger a symbolic. interpretation. 0 Clearly define your color scheme and make color Codes explicit. I l . ' Test with typical (viewersfa’nd rEVise to remove misinterpretation; I People Depicting people in technical graphics presents special problems. Sights common in one culture may be deeply offensive in another. It is important to remember that standards of modesty vary Widely: 0 In Western Europe, nudes are readily accepted in ‘TV and print advertisements; however, they are not in the United States (Ogilvy 1985). _O In" much of the Islamic world, only women.’ 3 hands and eyes may be shown. ' ~ v , 0 Avoid showing the sole of the foot in the Orient ' V (Holmes 1984). When the city of Atlanta ‘ ' campaigned for the 1996 Olympics, it used a videotape showing the virtues of the city, including its mild climate, illustrated with a scenepof barefoot children on a playground. The _ scene backfired for Oriental viewers, who » always wear shoes out of (doors but frequently remove them indoors. ‘ 'Shaes needed? Furthermore, detailed and realistic images of ' people inevitably carry cultural and racial identifiers. Consider Hewlett-Packard’s icon for a software agent/a prcigram that automates separate activities in your computer. Technical Communication, Fourth Quarter 1993 687 135 Woman: 53 mm 803: 8 13:3? am noon .mwmena 8088:6005 0m nmgmgnfiw mmflm. >m m mamwmdna 0m mawurm was an wn. no 333: ans moms»? >m m 339. 0m mawvrm. v55 50 mm 8 98000.2 m mend»: "H: mm 00% 8 <05 flaw? Sow mew Q5 Swamp @5683: 0». 9.80555 nrwn man vofim <33 85 Emnoswn 70S 90mm E80333 Ham—non $1305.? 90 8083. mg 05 555%»8 wwwnmrmdmwod 0m 808%-503 mm m golmmmam m€0&. Ha Bang mm fig 03% men 5 no $52.08” 000508? 50% 5% 0m mnmwzna min»? 3 £8 SEES m mmmfidanao @8076 5 3mm? mm 30m $0589 05 . E U38: ~13me Ham 09m 5 9m 05%? voow is: we Em §§ @3343. .Ho mom: 0 8009. m5 moan.an Emma? 08% 8 338 #5 mame How 3 m 908 Wm 803 8.92: 0H 8.0m 0m 050 33“: $350" $55 0m «5099.. 35 En 8me 25 0085385. 3380 "run 90 magi nsmmnmwmwmmmnbnnm 5510 En $50 sag. 250% 0m $5 $55 835508 5% no EmEmmE 560183 G - .Emofibmmou 0n 5&8 mans“; Emmansnmm 1955.. 06305 3 w mgwr a»: £8 s. z: 5 cw dmnm E3008”? 8 Bme #2505 omnnnm Hoowmmmimnmbn. fl o , 0.000 . x 0.. . 0........... w.».«.«.«.“ 3. H50 0393 mm son 5800mm. 8 co m 8.81“: w: roé no @8908 0E5? 0'0 0:0 0.0 0.0 20? 0 :0 ,0 .0 .0 3:: .‘z. 9.9 $23,}: ) at... if “W n a M n . I . . 0 am" MERE. Ho $8 8333». 5% 585.com 5,8 mwoé firm 35.81% 00%? Pm} m m «mug.» «.«uuunuum .., . . . . , . . . 00. .00 FEM many amnnvnmmassnom m0 9”: En Rana SH: Hanoméua m 989%.: .m m v«.n.n.n.m «.».«««««M . . . . . w '0000000000 0000000000. 9&3. men firm" 2 a. Hm wuosmr H5010 #000050 35,3 Gm 980 3.5818. .m w«0«0«0«.«. Hammaan gnaw—.83 53‘ @0050 no 32.0 55% 903 no Ewan" 5330300. w a “0%???” . . . . .W v000000.000. V0.0000u0u. .35 $3838 wnosmnm ~53 no won 255" Ea 23a 52:: @5330 e .0.......... .0.......... . . . m 0000000000.. w.00000000. om: Um swam no :9 can 90%. 895% Emma—ism nwanmaam arm” 9:100 swam" m 34 "0”.«0u0u.» w.u0»0u.«0. . , V . . , . . .. f 0000000000.. 0000000000“ $83505 0m En WmBnfiOnF manonnosm 0m 90 833:. gm 52303 E m “03.3.” 0«.«.«.n.». . . . . . 9 v0 . "rm mamumd 0m Banana 300$. ‘25 manoaobm :3QOan roan 30m» $05 .m N . w.«.«0«.«.“ U N, .6 9m 3.0mm 3 90 E085”. Fan 5 man #5360010 8: :9 3E vw mam BM in: 510% 308 0m EmEmfi. . o V :o’ 0:0. ’0’0 %’. 3' .z 0. v0tOpO>O>n ééx?§€i chub. . Wang“ {R QEwR Mans. F5. N ~13“ 33mm? Eflfifiw 3S. 1: thk. \ER :33. . . . , «as $0 a§ Rania i Eh0§§§§ E Ra 0.3%??me a 9.. N: 03.3. 3 2.5. W . aging § Rm S§0§3§ 30.8%: NS. $53 $3.3. «ER wwmmmmwwwwg NS Raw REM». 10m , Swnwxma. KR Es. 3:033 FE“ was: Qabwfimmfi. . fimfib Emnnmbnnm 3 gm 35 :00 mu.qu nab Um Qummdaunmm 0w gawmm E 4305 «<30. moBm ohnromm Bogomm 8850 072.0% :5. 88m. Oowmaan. m9. @0565. $5 $18 0». moE mu.me EEQmmbm 90 55:03 0m madam? Ema- rmamm m9. firm Gamma mnmnmm BE 90 Chm.” 5 $3. ‘35 mam” @310 78 non . . raw: Emaonnm. man 28 3.0% 08 muvfign may year $08 53. m Hon 0m garmmmmw R809 308 mm on? m 35: ammwngno 5 90 En 0m arm 25 man. 8%. 20$. SEER mi m0.an SE; @5089 989 .SEnr anme Um 5% g Amman? rwwoaumanmc owvomwmm woman: nmeanmm. I Hoaéaaoihfinmnv: we :3 «33 :3 < 821: 2%. 3 2:85: a miamzfi. Wxnwmwum 92 em arm 1N 8% Wm m 5me an? em Barnum meOnSdn $3305 w: 5.5% 9. 3% noggin. $0323 mam Regina. 52* 363313 Q5 BEan 90 83$. ‘55 ombmawmn mflmcwbm mmabmn m BEan U555 81038 90 98 on m NEE» Swan <03an 8% mafia son an N26. 65 2 Shoe. giro mwmnnobna 3 n5 5:533 0m Smarammm N83 Emmma o: 90 gm? Ea 3m 339. m Fm" gm? m5 mawnwmmwos as: 93m w: 99 m 9 Emma Emanonnn 5 9a macawwmom. Zomom £8 93 En mango: mm anaman g <oQ $5»: $37 559 £39 83» won .8 9mng 3‘ 9m 08%; 833. ‘ Number of strategic waaheads (thousands) H? RES waewwmw: meenmm SEW. “N N Fa. E3. 83.9%. gig WEE? «Rummwg wmnam . o , 5.0.0009 ,, . . 525: Saw “5.; h wmgmai ». 5 :2 SEE ENESME: an a: EN. «$22.. SEA“ 835:2 «£93 an 2K n HGnO-fliflihfian-u co so. 22:? a 32.32: 3.5.» a 5:51.. 5:35 a $3.228. >509? 833%? mnmism men a BEE VEEcF 5mm? EH: no 8553“ $8 953058 @0289 $096 Om €, gnaw Pam Q12» 90 m3? Emnwmsmur w< nfigmmbm firm moan. on. n70 Swami 8% W05 0 8 roooboo. firm momwmdmn rpm Emma En SwasN “Waggon E 90 2559. 0m éfirnmmm <mJ~ .35: Emma? Ho 8&8 9w Mama.» 35mm 808 588mg. a $5103 nammnannm who 59% Va E- 950? 207 mm 9m 9533 cm €8,70me arm" €85 mmmfin M. 8%: snowman $39 R w: $88 @0838? gm 3me anmmon $28 8 .5?an En 83% W05 Hmoomimwnm mum wmworowomwoa ammo” cm 90 Emma 5mm. ands) Number of strategic warheads (thous 3:. ABS xfiafimm Fain § NEH :Exwmfi Qaéalufiia 1‘ 5:29 @314 agmsg H? uwfififii M: Es:wa § § 3. as $5 «SEE 2 § 333 §w§3§ 3% m 3% 25:33. E .EEE, 22:3. $2312 258. 2.53. 31.. a: «finakak “$sz sneiaa «Emma 38¢ «saga? exu? §8~§R E3; «32%.». 5:“ . m 8 Elwin 2% a SEN E32? $3. cam 551:me “Si :92 385 ES: 5%.: .. I HOnOaaoin—fl—mO! 3.5: 3?. .3 Emu—oi. ,9. =3 :5 :5 m. 9. m mrwnwmn 59.38 5 firm 5me 0m 9an am <<n E8623 m 30va HE Homongm u {$8, 593% 3 En Hamming ngbaan > @373. %:m 8 ma: 45w»: inurwa no 9 N00 aim? 5m moi.» no 555» «.515me @9538 Ed Sgawwwag‘ 35:9. Euggwow: £0355 mum nrsm r38 €33.st 322 5383 coma. ‘Hra mo $33: 9895 9» mafia QB? 65 90 mwmmngom g mvwnwaw mm son 53% m0 @383,” $0850 arm flown o». 90 can :58 moon- SEE Samoa. "rm mega Sac wagon: m5 gamma. samba 0m $6 95 $8.5m. Hrnmm WERE $52 :02 $1305 5 $5 360% nmmo‘firo ammo cm ram? 8 amar‘nmw 38H :5 32:; waHmmmweu cm a mwmmnmwom. 135 ammo? . 3mm mama mfiovan on mmwbm 9. mannnmmim "Em Snow 8 338 9a 938. H458 SEE WBwnnmmwoum 8: Va Snag? Gaga.»an 3 9a m a maamman 9, rume @fifidflow 3 $5 9388 Weight (Xhousunds kg) Weight (thousands kg) _. 2:8: as: . 1333 . .53 . K28: 23:2: 2832 23:2: can 3 a? “ca; 3: SEEGTIEE & mamdfinv‘. , EQSESW 3. manxmamam t: Saw? a? @532 ES: ifiafifinw‘ixfimmmwfin : uwwngfiw. , cm 308 E3 969 Havana mm 3955 was: >35? c... $2.33: 0 HGAOEEOI-n—UumO-u 9. =3 :2 :5 Ease 123 a was... a 0323a agedbn 9a @367 «a: 25 <mQ 2??? a @513. #45 1 £703 90 @367 m is”? m 53 5 $9 flour 3 Ema Em 90% 1mm 3 £59.? 5 ran». H45 mvwnovamfianamm 0m era SEQ BEST a $9.: wonnwbm n3: 9n Qamwmsfl. rum magma Eonmwmgm Ba #5me 0m m5 .850. . , . EH? 0». w 63 8. “.5 n r3958 cm #58 058 :mwfiE Emdwus Om wing. ow om m 35%. wing E Homo mum Emmy 50H ‘36 983: 39:; Um amwammwnm R my ammo” m @3333 3 m5? mafia on 90 Um 35% £53 99330 5 SEE. Mama .3 .3 ~38: no: 33‘ Ewfimon "rm Rama 98$: rim? 8 83m Guam g Barrels per day (millions) 3533. “.3 1E “mafié. .3? SE.“ Ber a? “SE 2:“ ramwfi €13. “NR 3: Nash“? an»? S“? =3 1% www.mwfi a? N» NE: § mwsém S35“ 33% a $2,“ $3 a SE& SE“. 5% a flu SE sat: $5. an :3 «$3.32 “3 SEE“? s nanoaasihfl—mAv: co :3 a: a $5.35 33331339 3:: Enigma . 92$ 93515:. 3mm mfimazmui .555. . 3c . 15,5 mamwmsan n»: amo 50:50 A» Hmmmnadom who no finna £5 @98an 01%? go 20% $6. 8.3mm mmmm "rm 8mm 0m arm .33 9. :58 3598 no 9» 782% E5855: Eda. Air» $356? E8538 90 3mm manna 8539355 w: 30 33,3 83 nan?»an E EWCBHQ Hammaonr 20% 095mm? 33 “FT ED. ‘55 ammanabnm can Wm 9.0550an 85.56me Om 95mm» Afignr :3 T woo dogwbm 8 mo .43? En nmmmvw wnw 39835 1955» mbmmmm arm Emanmsnn .mnuu. a 6328: 9a Carma Habmmoa 3:» H335. firm mmmnfi 0m m mvdlosm Emma- mmo 9:5 a 038 :50 95 Um nawrwmwumm 3N mrvmwsm On 833me Ea 85.05 “595 9a I“ mm? mm «<3 mesa roam. Wan»: "ran Eu 3% 3838: no Emmaannnm 5 Swan; m. woo 3803mm” <<o :08 325303. .52 fivmorfio wBosEm. Hiram. 3N imam? rm anmimm £5291. 63m $6 @0303 mvosw 9m Hammadko :58. 90 mwmwmsmn Tm. Go wag firm Emmanwnmm 5 9a rowmrfi 0m 9o no? 303 mqwflmm Emu m :5 :5 SEE Hmzmnrm $58 8538? 5:3 53%.: 23 $353 52: . . . . N E 33.3. mg: . , . mu :3,» Saga 9 t: $5.. 52% SE @3wa wafiggg ,. . , wwmmwmgwhfifiwwamlasamwwxmwv‘ m“: 2min». N.» asii Mic Rafi NEWS. «Emmqgunfi $§ S $2st REE. 0 HGHQB-d-Olkflznv: so .833 a *raimagnga 5322: 3 83325 :53, 35332: 251:5 2. 3535: E: 1%.. 255% Emwraa Ed @325 w: wmnmwmonrfi 3 m 9% Swan 98m-&§nbmwobwr . 58 x25 Savanna @3438 53% 02.03553“ mega o: 3» moan @8550? 8 meow arm 35 399m :35. ‘35 Sagan wrasoaabow mm €3,518 S3 mwNm o053fln§éWm 85%an 8 339.8 ms oann.mn a Non—Ht 9% mm. _ €588», minnow W mm man? 955 "Wot r :5. egg" Sofia 0083 w 23:3 Soc mama: E m steam».me .35: F m Wm? H.. w$w LP @533 9:. meow son 30W 6 max—=9. Emu w 59:. on? w an Hoowm mmmnranfiéflr moV Wm 95 3258 cm . . MM do mnwnm wan 9.de 90 $30 .mwwo o: 90 3m». can 050 m mung mo firm: F M6633 8 Va 9315a 90%: n5 8»? 83% Wow: 9w $28”. firm: 0% 25 m8 Va. mans 3 9m gamma 0m man 35. EN Bmfidm 9n mBBnéon Few n78? . E80335? w @8553 8: 3:8 3558mm 0m ham whammnomonw no 39an . Mme 3w 3% Om oEonnm. mama Haw 89395 ram rag can.» no grammar 9n imdfi wawnmmmwo: om firm mwmnnmsnn wagon: Ownma, BE 90 CEan man—Rm 5 o 9.23 max; mwgawdm man 96:. H45 95 ,smmfirfi. uéfim. Sow Eamon "rm: "raw erGE w 1“ am a: Umnwsma Q5 4553 mwmnwa noawnsmmnnm m9. Ea $68.03 minnow. 208 "F: i: E§§§§ eqme 83§=Q 53“ E 8.2”. $£w1w§ wfiwwmfiwfivmmmwmfi wwwn , n70 38:3 a Emamng mew $9 a»? 3E9 38 813658 8.9m 568m- §¥§§ :5 w sasnfiam S :2. SSS Ems. c: H m 2% a WE: Om :58»an memrn. . . . can. 93% 2318232: 9%.; R1: a HOAOEaflikB—m05 co :3 5.2 :3 535—: 1 Asa—Ems macaw, 2. no: ran—=5 335.2.— . >3 9% was}: >3 923 was}: #45 86 m 335 828d 30:” 333? firms." Hnmwoam. firm momma: ow- _ wOmma 8 mumbm Ham 8me BE? .0» 883mm 8 938 m Mnme ES won.» 8 maps 9a Swan} 35 895E firm Emma" E5 aims“: Bon $53 3:; firmmwmnm mm 33 E 90 “533‘ 3a “Sam 9m Hammad no 3083998 arm mwNa 0m 9w wflnnmmmm. w C2 0 \I 9 k (\ .I ,In .mmv e W .m m DD 3m ‘ 92%; mean 92 , 92%; mean 92 fig. miomfianas flew: W43 3: 3 3% N8? Exfisuxohifig 3E»? EESEEN E». :5me . 2i“ 3:. §3§§m¢ Emmi». HE Emwmégi é?“ «Sin 3. ca 1: «31$ aim a: a SENS»: “33:. EEEN $8.“ mmiaa GEE SEm 1: SEN «moi. I HOAOBEGELWumOS so :2 =3 can—Ema: 3 3&8 we: For imam... , H198 Swan 8 ©3950 Ennwumwambmwoufi 6me Name and 550mm firm $28? ‘55 $6530 Ecmqmzam $5 @983»? cm @890 E .80: Om mg W6an Macs? x35 Sundown gm Hmvmmmnum wwunxu Us" 58G BE? gamma. HES; Epnwlm swamp: mmaofl m 9» mamwmumn Wm Elam 8 853:8 ESE» 8 H88 5 ommmn n?“ 9896,05? «$5 033% m0 Scar unomwmlar A45 35 .mnmm m»? "SEN 838m cinnasmmumnvnnhfimw. arms arm oEmnG gangs” En muwm rvibm £5 93 3255‘ 033»? 9a 30%?wa 0m mwan nonmflbnw who $05“?ng 13: mo 90 3355mm Una mama Samoa Emu E3 93,”. 58:5 5 Egg «23:8 : 3: 3% .Sm Sugwu cfimfimfi 33.: 1:. Skiim 35.. «Si EN“ 33335. @2534 3 31% tum , 2msz 6&3“ :32? 31%». :2: wa awning “Sim. \ , .q“ ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 03/18/2012 for the course ITEC 3290 taught by Professor Dunn during the Spring '12 term at East Carolina University .

Page1 / 9

culturalhowgrafxlie - documentsn Multiple translations can...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 9. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online