Psych Ch4 Outline - 4) Incredible Nervous System a) Genes &...

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4) Incredible Nervous System )a )i Zygote cell that results when an egg is fertilized. It contains 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs. )ii Chromosome hair like structure containing tightly coiled strands of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). )iii Gene specific segment on the strand of DNA that contains instructions for making protein. )iv Proteins chemical building blocks from which all the parts of the brain and body are constructed. )v Fragile X syndrome caused by a defect in the X chromosome, resulting in physical changes, such as a large head w/ protruding ears, as well as mental retardation. )vi Theory of evolution ( Charles Darwin) states that different species arose from a common ancestor and the species best adapted to its environment survived. )b Studying the Living Brain )i Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan) involves passing low-level radiation (X-rays) through the brain. A computer measures the amount of radiation absorbed by brain cells based on the density of each cell (dense cells absorb more radiation) and transforms this data into an image. )ii Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involves passing radio frequencies through the brain. A computer measures how these signals interact w/ brain cells and creates a detailed image from this interaction. )iii Positron emission tomography (PET scan) involves injecting a slightly radioactive solution into the blood stream and then measuring the amount of radiation absorbed by brain cells. A computer transforms this data into colors based on brain cell activity. Red & yellow max. activity; blue & green min. activity. )c Organization of the Brain )i Two Divisions of Nervous System ()1 Peripheral Nervous System includes all the nerves that extend from the spinal cord and carry messages to and from various muscles, glands, and sense organs located throughout the body. ()a Two Subdivisions of PNS ()i S omatic N ervous S ystem network of nerves that connect either to the sensory receptors or to the muscles that can be voluntarily moved. Nerves in the SNS usually contain two types of fibers: afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor). ()ii A utonomic N ervous S ystem regulates heart rate, breathing, digestion, hormone secretion, and other usually involuntary functions. .1 Two Subdivisions of ANS Mnemonic #1 S.N.S. = S omatic N ervous S ystem Mnemonic #2 A.N.S. = A utonomic N ervous S ystem
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.a Sympathetic division triggered by threatening or challenging physical/psychological stimuli and in result increases arousal and prepares body for action. .b Parasympathetic division returns body to homeostasis. ()2 Central Nervous System composed of brain and spinal cord. From the bottom of the brain emerges the spinal cord, which is made up of neurons and bundles of axons and dendrites that carry info back and forth between the brain and the body. )ii Major Parts of the Brain
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYCH 2140 taught by Professor Edelman during the Fall '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Psych Ch4 Outline - 4) Incredible Nervous System a) Genes &...

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