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Unformatted text preview: Node Caching Enhancement of Reactive Ad Hoc Routing Protocols Sunsook Jung, Nisar Hundewale, Alex Zelikovsky Abstract — Enhancing route request broadcasting protocols constitutes a substantial part of recent research in mobile ad- hoc network (MANET) routing. We suggest a novel approach to constrain route request broadcast which is based on node caching . Intuition behind node caching is that the nodes involved in recent data packet forwarding have more reliable information about its neighbors and have better locations (e.g., on the intersection of several data routs) than other nodes. We cache nodes which are recently involved in data packet forwarding, and use only them to forward route requests. Dropping route request forwarding from the other nodes considerably reduces routing overhead at the expense of possible destination missing. The suggested node caching techniques can be also viewed as a dynamic implementation of a connected dominating set (CDS). We overcome the known drawback of CDS – overuse of dominating (cached) nodes – by a new load-balancing scheme. Our contributions include: (i) a new node caching enhance- ment of route request broadcast for reactive ad hoc routing protocols; (ii) implementation of AODV-NC, the node caching enhancement of AODV; (iii) an extensive simulation study of AODV-NC in NS-2 showing (for stressed MANET’s) 10-fold reduction in overhead, significant improvement of the packet delivery ratio and the end-to-end delay; (iv) an evaluation of routing load distribution among MANET nodes; and (v) an implementation and simulation study in NS-2 of forwarding load balancing for AODV-NC sustaining considerable improve- ment in overhead and delivery ratio. Keywords: routing protocols, mobile ad hoc networks, Ad- hoc On-demand Distance Vector, routing load balancing, performance evaluation, network simulations. I. INTRODUCTION Mobile ad hoc Network (MANET) is a special type of wireless network in which a collection of mobile network interfaces may form a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. Ad hoc wireless network has applications in emergency search-and-rescue operations, decision making in the battle- field, data acquisition operations in hostile terrain, etc. It is featured by dynamic topology (infrastructureless), multi-hop communication, limited resources (bandwidth, CPU, battery, etc.) and limited security. These characteristics put special challenges in routing protocol design [1]. Department of Computer Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303. Email: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Several routing protocols for MANET’s have been sug- gested in late 90’s: DSR, AODV, DSDV, TORA and others (see [2] for comprehensive review of these protocols)....
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