20040932 paper05 - (IJCSIS International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security Vol 1 No 1 May 2009 A Full Image of the Wormhole

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 1, No. 1, May 2009 41 A Full Image of the Wormhole Attacks Towards Introducing Complex Wormhole Attacks in wireless Ad Hoc Networks Marianne Azer Computer Dept. National Telecommunication Institute Cairo, Egypt [email protected] Sherif El-Kassas Computer Science Dept. American University in Cairo Cairo, Egypt [email protected] Magdy El-Soudani Electronics and Communications Dept. Faculty of Engineering Cairo, Egypt [email protected] Abstract — In this paper, we are concerned of a particularly severe security attack that affects the ad hoc networks routing protocols, it is called the wormhole attack. We can think of wormhole attack as a two phase process launched by one or several malicious nodes. In the first phase, these malicious nodes, called wormhole nodes, try to lure legitimate nodes to send data to other nodes via them. In the second phase, wormhole nodes could exploit the data in variety of ways. We will introduce the wormhole attack modes and classes, and point to its impact and threat on ad hoc networks. We also analyze the wormhole attack modes from an attacker’s perspective and suggest new improvements to this type of attacks. We finally summarize and conclude this paper. Keywords-attacks; ad hoc network; security; tunneling; wormhole I. INTRODUCTION With the rapid development in wireless technology, ad hoc networks have emerged in many forms. These networks operate in the license free frequency band and do not require any investment in infrastructure, making them attractive for military and selected commercial applications. However, there are many unsolved problems in ad hoc networks; securing the network being one of the major concerns. Ad hoc networks are vulnerable to attacks due to many reasons; amongst them are the absence of infrastructure, wireless links between nodes, limited physical Protection, and the Lack of a centralized monitoring or management, and the resource constraints. A particularly severe security attack, called the wormhole attack, has been introduced in the context of ad-hoc networks [1], [2], [3]. During the attack [4] a malicious node captures packets from one location in the network, and tunnels them to another malicious node at a distant point, which replays them locally, this is illustrated in Figure 1. The tunnel can be established in many different ways, such as through an out-of-band hidden channel (e.g., a wired link), packet encapsulation, or high powered transmission. This tunnel makes the tunneled packet arrive either sooner or with less number of hops compared to the packets transmitted over normal multihop routes. This creates the illusion that the two end points of the tunnel are very close to each other. In this paper, we explain the attack modes and point to the impact of this attack and its threats. From an attacker’s perspective, we analyze each of the
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2012 for the course CS 1313 taught by Professor Aman during the Spring '12 term at Punjab Engineering College.

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20040932 paper05 - (IJCSIS International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security Vol 1 No 1 May 2009 A Full Image of the Wormhole

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