birth of open wormhole

birth of open wormhole - Defending against Wormhole Attacks...

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Defending against Wormhole Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Weichao Wang Bharat Bhargava Yi Lu Xiaoxin Wu wangwc, bb, yilu, wu @cs.purdue.edu Department of Computer Sciences, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, Indiana In ad hoc networks, malicious nodes can carry wormhole attacks to fabricate a false scenario on neighbor relations among mobile nodes. The attacks threaten the safety of ad hoc routing protocols and some security enhancements. We propose a classification of the attacks according to the format of the wormholes. It establishes a basis on which the detection capability of the approaches can be identified. The analysis shows that previous approaches focus on the prevention of wormholes be- tween neighbors that trust each other. As a more generic approach, we present an end-to-end mechanism that can detect wormholes on a multi-hop route. Only trust between the source and the destination is assumed. The mechanism uses geographic information to detect anomalies in neighbor relations and node movements. To re- duce the computation and storage overhead, we present a scheme, Cell-based Open Tunnel Avoidance(COTA), to manage the information. COTA achieves a constant space for every node on the path and the computation overhead increases linearly to the number of detection packets. We prove that the savings do not deteriorate the detection capability. The schemes to control communication overhead are studied. We show by simulations and experiments on real devices that the proposed mecha- nism can be combined with existent routing protocols to defend against wormhole attacks. I. Introduction As ad hoc networks are merging into the perva- sive computing environment, security becomes a central requirement. Distributed node be- haviour monitoring has been applied to enhance security. A system integrating watchdog and pathrater with the Dynamic Source Routing pro- tocol (DSR) [1] is presented in [2]. In security enhanced Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector protocol (AODV-S) [3], the neighbors collabo- ratively authorize a token to the node before it joins the network activities. The researchers have proposed several protocols that use hash chains or digital signatures to protect the integrity and authenticity of routing information. The Secure AODV protocol (SAODV) [4] adopts both mech- anisms. Secure Efficient Ad hoc Distance vector This work is supported by NSF ANI 0219110, IIS 0242840, CERIAS, MOTOROLA, and CISCO URP. The paper is accepted to appear in Wiley Journal Wire- less Communications and Mobile Computing (WCMC) routing (SEAD) [5] and Ariadne [6] use a variant of the Timed Efficient Stream Loss-tolerant Au- thentication (TESLA) [7] to accomplish authen- tication. A security-aware routing environment has been presented in [8]. Intrusion detection systems (IDS) have been
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birth of open wormhole - Defending against Wormhole Attacks...

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