End to End - An End-to-end Detection of Wormhole Attack in...

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An End-to-end Detection of Wormhole Attack in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks Xia Wang, Johnny Wong Department of Computer Science Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 5001 1 {jxiawang, wong} @cs.iastate.edu Abstract Wormhole attack is a severe attack in wireless ad-hoc networks. Most of the previous work eliminate the effect of wormhole attack by examining the distance or conznzuni- cation time over each link during the route establishment, which requires special hardware or causes overhead on all links even though only one link on each route could be af- fected by a wormhole attack. In this article, we propose an end-to-end detection of wormhole attack (EDWA) in wireless ad-hoc networks. We first present the wormhole detection which is based on the smallest hop count estimation between source and destina- tion. If the hop count of a received shortest route is much smaller than the estimated value an alert of wormhole at- tack is raised at the source node. Then the source node will start a wormhole TRACING procedure to identify the two end points of the wormhole. Finally, a legitimate route is selected for data communication. Both our analysis and simulation results show that the end-to-end wormhole de- tection method is effective when the source and destination are not too far away. 1 Introduction Wireless ad-hoc network is promising in solving many challenging real-world problems, for example, communica- tion in emergency response system, military field operation, and oil drilling and mining operation. The proliferation of wireless devices also stimulates the emergent applications in wireless ad hoc network. However, the realization and wide deployment of such network face many challenges. Security is one of the most challenging problems as the operation environment of such network is usually unpre- dictable and the existing mechanisms such as routing pro- tocols assume a trusted environment. Hence any malicious behavior could disrupting the normal operation of the net- works. Wormhole attack [13][3][8][24] is a severe attack in wireless ad hoc network in which the adversary builds a tun- nel between two end points which are usually multi-hops away. The message recorded at one end point is relayed to the other end and re-broadcasted into the network. The wormhole attack is particularly challenging to detect in that it can be mounted without compromising any nodes. Fur- thermore, the attackers can mount the attack without reveal- ing their identities. Previous countermeasures to the wormhole attack have relied on specialized hardware which may not be feasible in wireless ad hoc network scenario. Moreover, most of the protocols prevent the wormhole attack by securing each link and no method has been proposed to identify the locations of the two end points of the wormhole.
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End to End - An End-to-end Detection of Wormhole Attack in...

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