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Unformatted text preview: Wormhole Attacks Detection in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: A Statistical Analysis Approach Ning Song and Lijun Qian Department of Electrical Engineering Prairie View A&M University Prairie View, Texas 77446 Email: NSong, Lijun Qian@pvamu.edu Xiangfang Li WINLAB Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854 Email: xﬂi@winlab.rutgers.edu Abstract — Various routing attacks for single-path routing have been identified for wireless ad hoc networks and the corre- sponding counter measures have been proposed in the literature. However, the effects of routing attacks on multi-path routing have not been addressed. In this paper, the performance of multi-path routing under wormhole attack is studied in detail. The results show that multi-path routing is vulnerable to wormhole attacks. A simple scheme based on statistical analysis (called SAM) is proposed to detect such attacks and to identify malicious nodes. Comparing to the previous approaches (for example, using packet leash), no special requirements (such as time synchronization or GPS) are needed in the proposed scheme. Simulation results demonstrate that SAM successfully detects wormhole attacks and locates the malicious nodes in networks with different topologies and with different node transmission range. Moreover, SAM may act as a module in local detection agents in an intrusion detection system (IDS) for wireless ad hoc networks. I. INTRODUCTION The application of multi-path techniques in wireless ad hoc networks is natural, as multi-path routing (MR) allows diminishing the effect of unreliable wireless links and the constantly changing network topology. Pham and Perreau  show that multi-path routing provides better performance in congestion and capacity than single-path routing. When single- path on-demand routing protocol such as AODV  is used in highly dynamic wireless ad hoc networks, a new route discovery is needed in response to every route break. Each route discovery is associated with high overhead and latency. This inefficiency can be avoided by having multiple paths avaialble and a new route discovery is needed only when all paths break. In view of the advantages of multi-path routing in multi- hop wireless ad hoc networks, recently there are several works on modeling, analyzing and developing reliable and efficient data delivery techniques using multiple paths, for example,   . However, all of them focus on studying data delivery techniques with diversity coding  using multiple paths rather than the security aspects of multi-path routing itself. Various routing attacks have been identified and specific solutions to each type of the attacks are provided in the liter- ature for single-path routing. Examples include the wormhole attack , rushing attack , and blackhole attack . Al- though there are many studies on single-path routing security, very little is known about multi-path routing security. For example, it is not clear how multi-path routing will perform under various routing attacks.under various routing attacks....
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- Spring '12