bio review - Chapter 1 • Biological hierarchy concept o...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 • Biological hierarchy concept o Nucleotides (c g t a) DNA gene protein o Atoms molecules cells tissue organs organ system organism population community ecosystem • Properties of living organisms: o Consist of one or more cells o Contain genetic information o Use genetic information to reproduce themselves o Are genetically related and have evolved o Can convert molecules obtained from their environment into new biological molecules o Can extract energy from the environment and use it to do biological work o Can regulate their internal environment Chapter 2 • Types of chemical bonds and how they form: o Covalent: Two atoms attain stable electron numbers in their outermost shells by sharing one + pairs of electrons Very strong, takes lots of energy to break o Ionic: Bonds formed by electrical attration between ions bearing opposite charges o Hydrogen: Bonds formed between a strongly electronegative atom and hydrogen aton Weaker than most inoci bonds b/c it is formed by partial charges 10% strength of covalent bond • Polar and non-polar nature of molecules: o Polar covalent: Electrons are drawn to one nucleus more than to the other Opposite charges are separated at the two ends, or poles, of the bond o Non-polar covalent: Sharing of electrons equally, when 2 atoms close to each other in electronegativity • Solubility in water: o Hydrophilic: “water-loving” Polar molecule interacts with water through the weak attractions of hydrogen bonds o Hydrophobic: Non-polar molecules interact with other non-polar molecules “water-hating” In water molecules tend to aggregate with other non-polar molecules • pH: o measure how acidic or basic a solution is by measuring the concentration of H+ in moles per liter Chapter 3 • Biomolecule types: o Proteins: Monomeric subunits of proteins = 20 amino acids Each folded into a specific 3-D shape Each protein consists of a single unbranched polymer of amino acids ( polypeptide chain ) Amino acids • Both carboxyl functional group and amino functional group attached to the same carbon atom • Also attatched to carbon atom are a hydrogen atom and a side chain, or R group • D-amino acids and L-amino acids o L is more common in organisms o Important chemical “signature” of life Peptide bond • Carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with amino group of another • Aka peptide linkage o Carbohydrates: Molecules containing carbon atoms flanked by hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups Carbs are source of energy that can be released in a form usable by body tissues...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIOL 1362 taught by Professor Loeblich during the Spring '08 term at University of Houston.

Page1 / 20

bio review - Chapter 1 • Biological hierarchy concept o...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online