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US20110206528A1 - (19 United States US 20110206528A1(12...

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Unformatted text preview: (19) United States US 20110206528A1 (12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2011/0206528 A1 Kang et al. (43) Pub. Date: Aug. 25, 2011 (54) WING STRUCTURE FOR WIG VEHICLE (75) Inventors: Chang Gu Kang, Daejeon (KR); Han Jin Lee, Daejeon (KR); Chang Min Lee, Daejeon (KR) WING SHIP TECHNOLOGY CORP, Daejeon (KR) (73) Assignee: (21) Appl. No.: 13/059,945 (22) PCT Filed: Mar. 18,2009 (86) PCT No.: § 371 (0(1), (2), (4) Date: PCT/KR2009/001357 May 2,2011 (30) Foreign Application Priority Data Aug. 20, 2008 (KR) ........................ 10-2008-0081188 Publication Classification (51) Int. C1. B60V 3/06 (2006.01) (52) us. C1. .................................................... 416/223 R (57) ABSTRACT The wing structure of a WIG vehicle comprising left and right main wings, left and right downward wings, and a rudder unit. The left and right main wings protrude out from the central portions of left and right sides of the WIG vehicle. The panel of the main wing is flat and tapers successively toward the lateral edge, whereof the cross-section is airfoil-shaped and has the shape of a tadpole. The panel shaped left and right downward wings are connected with both ends of the left and right main wings without a joint and are formed heading downward to suppress vortex and guidance drag generated in both ends of the main wings. The rudder units are mounted on the rear surface of the left and right downward panels with a slight gap in order to compensate asymmetry between left and right lateral ends caused by movement under control of the fuselage driving unit of the WIG vehicle and to turn the fuselage left or right. Therefore, the wing structure of the WIG vehicle is capable of minimizing vortex and guidance drag generated in both ends of the left and right main wings by maximizing ground effect. Additionally, the wing structure has advantages for absorbing impact from the fuselage when taking off and landing and stabilizing horizontal disturbance of the fuselage because the left and right downward wings occupy much more volume than a winglet. 400 Patent Application Publication Aug. 25, 2011 Sheet 1 0f 9 US 2011/0206528 A1 FIG. 1 FIG. 2 Patent Application Publication Aug. 25, 2011 Sheet 2 0f 9 US 2011/0206528 A1 FIG. 3 \ 200 I 300 FIG. 4 Patent Application Publication Aug. 25, 2011 Sheet 3 0f 9 US 2011/0206528 A1 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 Patent Application Publication Aug. 25, 2011 Sheet 4 0f 9 US 2011/0206528 A1 FIG. 8 Aug. 25, 2011 Sheet 5 0f 9 US 2011/0206528 A1 Patent Application Publication FIG. 9 FIG. 10 Patent Application Publication Aug. 25, 2011 Sheet 6 0f 9 US 2011/0206528 A1 FIG. 11 FIG. 12 Patent Application Publication Aug. 25, 2011 Sheet 7 0f 9 US 2011/0206528 A1 FIG. 13 200 209 320 201 FIG. 14 310 Patent Application Publication Aug. 25, 2011 Sheet 8 0f 9 US 2011/0206528 A1 FIG. 15 FIG. 16 Patent Application Publication Aug. 25, 2011 Sheet 9 0f 9 US 2011/0206528 A1 FIGL17 400 100 200 Ffl3.18 300 <:><:> Ffl3.fl9 US 2011/0206528 A1 WING STRUCTURE FOR WIG VEHICLE CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELAYED ED APPLICATIONS [0001] This application is the US. national phase of the International Patent Application No. PCT/KR2009/001357 filed Mar. 18, 2009, which claims the benefit of KoreanAppli- cation No. 10-2008-0081188 filed Aug. 20, 2008, the entire content of which is incorporated herein by reference. BACKGROUND [0002] 1. Field of the Invention [0003] The invention relates, in general, to a wing structure for a WIG (wing in ground) craft and, more particularly, to a wing structure for a WIG craft in which vertical downward panels are formed seamlessly on both ends of the left and right main wings so as to suppress vortices and induced drag that are generated on both the ends of the left and right main wings, and in which asymmetry in thrust, which is between the left and right lateral ends when the WIG craft moves, is compensated under the control of a driving unit of the body of the WIG craft, thereby preventing yawing of the WIG craft and securing stability without using a vertical tail wing. [0004] 2. Description of the Related Art [0005] Generally, aircraft use a large vertical tail wing in order to secure stability with respect to yawing and compen- sate for asymmetry in thrust between the left and right lateral ends. This conforms to aircraft regulations and is imple- mented for enabling the aircraft to operate even when either one of the left and right propellers malfunctions. However, since upon engine failure, WIG craft can make an emergency landing on the surface of the water and implement required emergency measures and corrective maintenance, unlike other aircraft, WIG craft does not need a large vertical tail wing. Thus, provided that instead of the vertical tail wing, means for ensuring stability with respect to yawing is pre- sented, the body of the WIG craft can be streamlined by removing the vertical tail wing. The vertical tail wing, mounted on a rear portion of the body of the WIG craft, in general is provided with a rudder, so that when the WIG craft operates, air resistance and therefore fuel consumption prob- lematically increase. [0006] However, a substitute for the vertical tail wing has not yet been developed. [0007] The invention relates to an end plate structure that extends downwards from both ends of mainwings of the WIG craft. Generally, vortices are generated on both ends of the main wings of the WIG craft, and this increases the flight resistance. Thus, a wing structure is required to suppress the generation of vortices while providing other functionalities. [0008] The end plate which is currently used in the WIG craft only serves to suppress the vortices and has no additional capacity and functions, so that it generally is only mounted within the limits of suppressing the vortices. Thus, there is a need to provide an improved end plate to increase lift and thrust and ensure a stable flight when the WIG craft moves. SUMMARY [0009] Accordingly, the invention has been made keeping in mind the above problems occurring in the related art, and is intended to provide a wing structure for a WIG craft that is capable of suppressing vortices and induced drag generated on both ends of the left and right main wings, and compen- Aug. 25, 2011 sating for asymmetry in thrust, which is between the left and right lateral ends when the WIG craft moves, under the con- trol of a driving unit of the body of the WIG craft. [0010] An embodiment of the invention provides a wing structure for a WIG craft in which a vertical tail wing is removed from a rear portion of the body of the WIG craft to reduce the weight of the WIG craft and make the overall configuration of the WIG craft have a slim streamline, and a rudder is mounted on a rear surface of the left and right downward wings to ensure stability with respect to yawing through turning to the left or right from the body of the WIG craft. [0011] An embodiment of the invention provides a wing structure for a WIG craft including: a main wing protruding outwards from the side middle portion of the body of the WIG craft; a downward wing seamlessly extending vertically downwards from an outer end of the main wing; a horizontal tail wing extending horizontally outwards from a rear portion of the body of the WIG craft; and a vertical tail wing vertically extending from an axis of the body of the WIG craft where the horizontal tail wing is mounted, wherein the downward wing has a vertical cross sectional shape of a streamline in which a frontal section including a leading edge is shaped like a round with a proper thickness in order to prevent flow separation from occurring, and a rear section including a tailing edge shaped like a converging section that converges from a thick- ened portion into the tailing edge that sharply extends in a linear line, wherein the thickened portion is positioned at a position of between 3/10 and 4/10 from the leading edge in the length of the streamline in the lengthwise direction from the leading edge to the tailing edge. [0012] An embodiment of the invention provides a wing structure for a WIG craft, including a main wing protruding outwards from the side middle portion of the body of the WIG craft; a downward wing seamlessly extending vertically downwards from an outer end of the main wing; and a hori- zontal tail wing extending horizontally outwards from the rear portion of the body of the WIG craft, wherein the down- ward wing includes a downward panel integrally extending downwards from the end of the main wing, and a rudder unit movably mounted onto a rear surface of the downward panel, wherein the downward wing including the rudder unit has a vertical cross sectional shape of a streamline in which a frontal section including a leading edge is shaped like a round with a proper thickness in order to prevent flow separation from occurring, and a rear section including a tailing edge is shaped like a converging section that converges from a thick- ened portion into the tailing edge that sharply extends in a linear line, so that the entire downward wing has the vertical cross sectional shape of an airfoil. [0013] In an exemplary embodiment, the horizontal tail wing includes a horizontal safety plate as a fixed type hori- zontal panel, and a movable elevator unit mounted on a rear surface of the horizontal safety plate, wherein the elevator unit has a vertical cross sectional shape of a streamline in which a frontal section including a leading edge is shaped like a round with a proper thickness in order to prevent flow separation from occurring, and a rear section including a tailing edge is shaped like a converging section that converges from a thickened portion into the tailing edge that sharply extends in a linear line, so that the entire horizontal tail wing has the vertical cross sectional shape of an airfoil. [0014] In an exemplary embodiment, the shape of a lower portion of the downward wing is shaped like an arch or a US 2011/0206528 A1 streamlined “V” so as to minimize the friction force against the surface of the water or air on the all face of the water. [0015] In an exemplary embodiment, the downward wing is made of carbon fiber aluminum. [0016] In an exemplary embodiment, the main wing has an internal structure that includes a plurality of airfoil-shaped ribs, which is connected between the leading edge and the tailing edge, and a plurality of panel-shaped spars, which intersects with the ribs. [0017] The wing structure for a WIG craft according to the invention is capable of suppressing vortices and induced drag generated on both ends of the left and right main wings while increasing lift and thrust, and compensating for asymmetry in thrust, which is between the left and right lateral ends when the WIG craft moves, under the control of the driving unit of the body of the WIG craft. [0018] Further, the vertical tail wing is removed from the rear portion of the body of the WIG craft to advantageously reduce the weight of the WIG craft, and the rudder is mounted on the rear surface of the left and right downward wings to advantageously ensure stability with respect to yawing through turning to the left or right from the body of the WIG craft. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [0019] FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing a first embodi- ment of a wing structure of the invention: [0020] FIG. 2 is a perspective view showing a second embodiment of a wing structure of the invention; [0021] FIG. 3 is a cut perspective view showing a main wing and a downward wing of the wing structure shown in FIGS. 1 and 2; [0022] FIG. 4 is a perspective view showing the inside of the main wing shown in FIG. 3 having ribs and spars; [0023] FIGS. 5 and 6 are views showing lower sections of the downward wing; [0024] FIG. 7 is a perspective view showing a third embodi- ment of a wing structure of the invention; [0025] FIGS. 8 and 9 are perspective views showing a main wing and a downward wing of the wing structure shown in FIG. 7; [0026] FIG. 10 is a cut perspective view showing a lower section of the downward wing shown in FIGS. 8 and 9; [0027] FIG. 11 is a perspective view showing the inside of the downward wing according to the third embodiment; [0028] FIG. 12 is a perspective view showing a fourth embodiment of a wing structure of the invention; [0029] FIGS. 13 and 14 are cut perspective views showing a main wing and a downward wing of the wing structure shown in FIG. 12; [0030] FIGS. 15 and 16 are views showing a lower section of the downward wing; [0031] FIG. 17 is a side view showing a WIG (wind in ground) craft according to the invention; [0032] FIG. 18 is a conceptual scheme explaining the con- trol of yawing using the downward wing according to the invention; and [0033] FIG. 19 is a cross-sectional view showing an airfoil- shaped wing using a lift face of an end plate. DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS [0034] Hereinafter, the wing structure for a WIG (wing in ground) craft according to the invention will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. Aug. 25, 2011 [0035] FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing a first embodi- ment of a wing structure of the invention; FIG. 2 is a perspec- tive view showing a second embodiment of a wing structure of the invention; FIG. 3 is a cut perspective view showing a main wing and a downward wing of the wing structure shown in FIGS. 1 and 2; FIG. 4 is a perspective view showing the inside of the main wing shown in FIG. 3 having ribs and spars; FIGS. 5 and 6 are views showing lower sections of the down- ward wing; FIG. 7 is a perspective view showing a third embodiment of a wing structure of the invention; FIGS. 8 and 9 are perspective views showing a main wing and a downward wing of the wing structure shown in FIG. 7; FIG. 10 is a cut perspective view showing a lower section of the downward wing shown in FIGS. 8 and 9; FIG. 11 is a perspective view showing the inside of the downward wing according to the third embodiment; FIG. 12 is a perspective view showing a fourth embodiment of a wing structure of the invention; FIGS. 13 and 14 are cut perspective views showing a main wing and a downward wing of the wing structure shown in FIG. 12; FIGS. 15 and 16 are views showing a lower section of the downward wing; FIG. 17 is a side view showing a WIG (wind in ground) craft according to the invention; FIG. 18 is a conceptual scheme explaining the control of yawing using the downward wing according to the invention; and FIG. 19 is a cross-sectional view showing an airfoil-shaped wing using a lift face of an end plate. [0036] The wing structure for a WIG craft described with reference to the accompanying drawings is a bilaterally sym- metric structure about an axis of the body of the WIG craft. Thus, even though a description is made of either the left or right wing structure, the other side wing structure also has the same structure as that described. [0037] FIG. 1 shows the first embodiment of the wing struc- ture for a WIG craft, which includes a main wing 200 pro- truding outwards from the side middle portion of the body of the WIG craft, a downward wing 300 seamlessly extending vertically downwards from an outer end of the main wing 200, a vertical tail wing 400 extending horizontally outwards from a rear portion of the body of the WIG craft 100, and a vertical tail wing 500 vertically extending from an axis of the body of the WIG craft where the horizontal tail wing 400 is mounted. [0038] The downward wing 300 includes a frontal section including a leading edge and a rear section including a tailing edge, wherein the frontal section has a round cross sectional shape with a proper thickness in order to prevent flow sepa- ration from occurring, and the rear section has a converging section that converges from a thickened portion into the tail- ing edge that sharply extends in a linear line. [0039] While the conventional downward wing is shaped as a linear panel with a constant thickness, the downward wing of the first embodiment is formed as a streamline shaped like an airfoil, thereby serving to suppress vortices and increase thrust. More particularly, underneath a wing, there generally is a fluid flow flowing from inside towards outside, so that if an end plate or a downward winglet is arranged in a vertical direction from an end of the wing, the fluid flow under the wing has a specified incidence angle (an angle of attack) with respect to the end plate or the downward winglet, thereby creating lift at the end plate or the downward winglet. Such lift has a first force component in the traveling direction of the WIG craft and a second force component in the horizontal direction, and the first force component in the traveling direc- tion serves to increase thrust. Thus, if the end plate has the US 2011/0206528 A1 cross section of an airfoil, which is the general shape of a wing, the creation of lift can be maximized. [0040] The leading edge of the lift face of the end plate is a round shape with a proper thickness to prevent flow separa- tion and the tailing edge of the lift face of the end plate is a sharply converged form in which upon flow separation, lift is maximized thereby serving to reducing air resistance and increase thrust due to suppression of vortices. Further, the configuration of the downward wing occupies much more volume than the conventional end plate. Thus, the wing struc- ture has advantages for absorbing impact upon take off and landing and ensuring stability with respect to yawing, so that it also serves as a float that is provided in WIG craft or hydroplanes as an auxiliary landing unit shaped like e.g. a ski. That is, the downward wing can also be used as the float by configuring itself to be streamlined, so that the WIG craft can be made into a simpler structure. [0041] The second embodiment of the wing structure and the configuration of the downward wing will now be described in detail with reference to FIGS. 2 to 6. [0042] As compared to the first embodiment, in the second embodiment, the vertical tail wing is removed, the horizontal tail wing, which had been mounted to the end portion of the body of the WIG craft, is mounted at the rear side of the body that is positioned forward from the end portion, and the shape and structure of the horizontal tail wing are modified. [0043] Particularly, the downward wing 300 is seamlessly connected to an end of the main wing 200 such that it extends downwards from the end of the main wing. The downward wing has a streamlined cross sectional shape in which a leading edge 301 is formed as a smooth round, and in the lengthwise direction from the leading edge 301 to the tailing edge 309, the width of the streamline increases from the vertex of the leading edge 301 to a position of between 3/10 and 4/10 of the length of the streamline, and the width of the streamline decreases from the position of between 3/1 0 and 4/10 of the length of the streamline to the tailing edge 309 and finally sharply converges on the vertex of the tailing edge. [0044] As shown in FIG. 4, the main wing 200 has the internal structure that includes a plurality of airfoil-shaped ribs 212, which is connected between a leading edge 201 and a tailing edge 209, and a plurality of panel-shaped spars 211, which intersects with the ribs 212. The internal structure of the main wing serves to increase lift. Further, the internal structure can be utilized as a fuel tank or a shipping space in which parcels can be stored. [0045] The shape of the lower portion of the downward wing is preferably shaped like an arch or a streamlined “V” so as to minimize the friction force against the surface of the water or the ground. [0046] The third embodiment of the wing structure for a WIG craft will now be described with reference to FIGS. 7 to 11. [0047] As shown in the drawings, the wing structure for a WIG craft includes a main wing 200 protruding outwards from the side middle portion of the body of the W...
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