Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 What are the main physiologic...

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Chapter 5 What are the main physiologic functions of bone? The main functions of bone include support , protection, movement, storage, and blood cell productions. What properties of bone allow it to perform the main physiologic functions of bone? The physiologic roles are dependent on the compostion and structure of bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage. How do long bones, flat bones, and irregular bones differ in terms of their structure and physiologic roles? Long bones has three components: a central diaphysis(long shaft of bone), proximal epiphysis, and a distal epiphysis. The meduallary cavity and cancellous spaces of long bones are fill with red & yellow bone marrow. Red marrow contain hemopoietic stem cells that create red blood cells. Yellow marrow is filled with adipose tissue. Flat bones are flattened and curved bones. Their internal structure is made of two layers of compact bone that sandwich a layer of cancellous bone. The joints of flat bone are different than those made by long bones. Their physiologic roles include protection and support. Short and irregular bones have compact bone surfaces surrounding a cancellous bone center with small, marrow-filled cavities. They do not have a diaphysis. The connection between short and irregular bones with other bones varies greatly due to their unusual shape and ability to make a range of articulations. Define the following terms: diaphysis, epiphysis, and epiphyseal plate. Diaphysis - main shaft of a long bone. Epiphysis - the rounded end of a long bone, at its joint with adjacent bone. Epiphyseal plate - is a hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis at each end of a long bone. What is cancellous bone, and how does it differ anatomically from compact bone? Cancellous bone(also, know as spongy bone due its porous appearance) is bone with less ossified matrix and more space. It is composed of interconnecting pieces of trabeculae, which provide space for bone marrow and blood vessels. Compact bone is denser and has less open space than cancellous bone. Canals run through
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Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 What are the main physiologic...

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