CNS Anatomy - XIV OVERVIEW ANATOMY OF CENTRAL NERVOUS...

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XIV. OVERVIEW: ANATOMY OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Learning Objectives: The student will be able to Describe the anatomy of the spinal cord List the ascending and descending fiber tracts within the spinal cord Describe the structure of a nerve Describe the major nerve plexuses List the structures making up the brainstem and diencephalon Describe the functions of each brain stem and diencephalon structure Describe the function of the cerebellum Describe the structure of the cerebral hemispheres Correlate lobes of brain with function List function for each cranial nerve Describe the blood-brain barrier READ text for anatomy, using this handout along with CNS Anatomy slide set, as guide. Refer to slides for figures. 1. CNS Most synapses (some outslying synapses in ganglia) 2. PNS Snesory division - somatic - visceral Motor Division - somatic - automatic(visceral) Terms Ganglia (ganglion) - collection of cell bodies(gray matter) outside the CNS *cell bodies and usually synapses(exception: dorsal root ganglia(just cell bodies)) Nucleus - collection of cell bodies(and synapses) in CNS Nerve(white matter) - collection of axons and "peripheral processes" of sensory neurons(also axons) outside CNS.//Both efferent(motor) and afferent(sensory) axons. Tract - collection of axons inside CNS Nerve fibers - usually refers to axons Neuron - whole nerve cell Connective tissue(sheathes) I. Spinal Cord A. Gross Anatomy
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1. Spinal cord is enclosed by connective tissue and encased by the vertebral column. In adult, it ends at L1-L2 level, and spinal nerves below this level continue as cauda equina 2. Cross section: Gray matter (gray due to presence of cell bodies; site of synapses between neurons) White matter (axons and/or peripheral processes of sensory neurons) Dorsal and ventral horns
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