Musculoskeletal

Musculoskeletal - MUSCULOSKELETAL ANATOMY BONES, JOINTS,...

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MUSCULOSKELETAL ANATOMY – BONES, JOINTS, MUSCLES AND MOVEMENTS OF THE AXIAL AND APPENDICULAR SKELETON AXIAL SKELETON: Head and Vertebral Column I. Skull A. The Jaw: Temperomandibular Articulation 1. Bones a. Temporal bone b. Mandible: Mandibular condyles [c. Hyoid: not part of this joint but in the area. .] 2. Joint class: Combined Ginglymus (hinge) and Gliding. 3. Muscles of Jaw - (know actions) a. Digastricus: opens jaw b. Temporalis: closes c. Masseter: sides d. Pterygoids: muscle of mastication 4. Disorder: TMJ Syndrome - latteral associated II. Vertebral Column Total of 26 vertebral bones. A. Anatomy of Vertebrae 1. Body - supports weight 2. Arch - encloses spinal cord 3. Also: transverse processes, spinous process, vertebral foramen, superior + inferior articular processes hand facets. B. Types of Vertebrae and articulations 1. Cervical (7) a. Atlanto-occipital Joint (Occipital condyles - C1) i. Condyloid joint. ii. Movement = "yes". b. Atlantoaxial Joint (C1 - C2) i. Structure of Atlas (C1) and Axis (C2 with dens) ii. Combined joint: Pivot (dens and ring of C1) and 2 Gliding (articular facets) iii. Movement = "No" 2. Thoracic Vertebrae (12) a. Costovertebral Articulations 3. Lumbar (5) Lower portion, has a much larger body to support the weight of the body 4. Sacrum (One: 5 fused into one bone) 5. Coccyx ("One": 4-5 rudimentary vertebrae, often fused.)
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1. Between bodies = Symphyses . a. Intervertebral Discs i. Annulus Fibrosus(inner) - fibrocartiliage joint ii. Nucleus Pulposus(outer) - functions to distribute hydraulic pressure in all directions within each disc under compressive loads. The nucleus pulposus consists of chondrocytes, collagen fibrils, and proteoglycan aggrecans that have hyaluronic long chains which attract water iii. Problems with intervertebral discs (see clinical view) *herniated - hole in nucleus pulposus b. Ligaments: E.g. Anterior longitudinal; Posterior longitudinal 2. Between vertebral arches = Gliding Joints . a. Ligaments: E.g. Supraspinous D. Movements of Vertebral Column 1. Flexion-Extension 2. Lateral Flexion 3. Circumduction 4. Rotation E. Muscles 1. Sternocleidomastoid: obliques in the neck 2. Rectus Abdominus: flexes vertebral column 3. Erector Spinae: extend vertebral column F. Functions of Vertebral Column 1. Support weight (head and trunk) 2. Protect spinal cord 3. Allow flexibility III. Thorax - Chest A. Bones 1. Sternum 2. Ribs - 12: True = 1-7, False = 8-12 (Floating = 11-12). 3. Thoracic Vertebrae (12) B. Articulations 1. Costovertebral a. Two joints/rib: i. Head of rib with vertebral body ii. Tubercle of rib with transverse process. b. Gliding joints
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Musculoskeletal - MUSCULOSKELETAL ANATOMY BONES, JOINTS,...

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