AP bio lab 8. - 1 Allele Frequencies Determined by PTC...

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1 Allele Frequencies Determined by PTC tasting, Alu PCR and Simulating Selection, No Selection, and Heterozygote Advantage through the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Advanced Placement Biology Mr. Brothwell Samuel Castrejon
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2 Abstract Allele frequencies were determined through the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and through the use of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium the output of the allele frequencies showed the instability of the gene pool within a population. A simulation of a population of bunnies and their frequencies represented by beans that show changes in the allele frequencies over five generations in various situations that include no selection, selection, and heterozygote advantage. The data that results in terms of allele frequencies show how different kinds of selections affect a population’s gene pool over time and why some traits are visible in a species and how other traits disappear over time. Methods and Materials This lab included two sections: PTC paper tasting/ Alu PCR and the change of allele frequencies of bunnies that are breeding. The PTC tasting portion of the lab needed a strip of PTC paper that was passed out to the individuals. The strips of the PTC paper were placed on the tongue of the individuals and those who tasted some sort of bitterness were counted as tasters and those who didn’t were counted as nontasters. The frequency of nontasters was found through the division of the number of nontasters by the total number of individuals, the same is said to determine the frequency of tasters. The determination of the allele frequencies was found through the Hardy-Weinberg Equation p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1, where p is the dominant tasting allele and q is the recessive nontasting allele. The determination of the allele frequencies of the North American population was found by the use of the same equation. For the Alu PCR, one needed a PCR tube containing a “Ready-To-Go” bead and 22.5µL of primer was added to the PCR tube. After the bead had dissolved, 2.5µL of extracted DNA was added to the mixture and then
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3 the tube was placed in a thermocycler that denatured the tube at 94˚C for 30 seconds, annealed the tube at 68˚C for 30 seconds, and extended the tube at 72˚C for 30 seconds. The PCR products were electrophoresed in 2% agarose gel for 30 mins, the results that were possible from the Alu PCR products were either homozygous dominant, heterzygous, or homozygous recessive. The frequencies of the alleles were determined by the equation p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1, where p is dominant and q is recessive. For the second section of the lab, 50 white beans, that represented the recessive f allele, and 50 red beans, that represented the dominant F allele, were distributed, placed inside a paper bag, and mixed. Two beans were pulled at random from the bag at one time and placed into containers representing FF, Ff, and ff. This was done until all pairs of beans were pulled from the bag. The numbers of all 3 pairs were recorded into a data
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AP bio lab 8. - 1 Allele Frequencies Determined by PTC...

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