Ramadan Study Guide

Ramadan Study Guide - 1 A Concise Study Guide to Fasting...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 1 A Concise Study Guide to Fasting During the Month of Ramadan (1 Edition) st Taken from the works of the great scholars Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn [d. 1083 AH], may Allh have mercy on him, and Dr. li b. Fawzn al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him Rendered into the English language by Ab dam Jaml Finch EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 2 [Table of Contents] Cover Page...............................................................................................................................1 Table of Contents...................................................................................................................2 An Introduction to the Study Guide...................................................................................3 An Important Principle of Seeking Knowledge....................................................................4 About the Book...................................................................................................................5 About the Author...................................................................................................................5 The Ruling on Fasting the Month of Raman................................................................6 Conditions for the Obligation of Fasting..............................................................................6 When Does the Month of Raman Enter............................................................................7 Astrological Calculations are an Innovation ...................................................................7 The Correct Creed is What Will Unite This Nation .............................................................8 Clarification of Who Must Refrain from Eating in the Middle of the Day During Raman....................................................................................................................8 Those Who are Excused from Fasting..............................................................................9 The Ease of Islm.................................................................................................................12 The Ruling of the Intention to Fast During Raman....................................................12 Things that Break the Fast and Their Categories...............................................................13 Things that Break One's Fast by Entering the Body..........................................................14 Things that Break One's Fast by Exiting the Body.............................................................15 Conditions for Actually Breaking One's Fast.......................................................................17 That Which Breaks the Fast and Requires a Kaffrah (i.e. expiation)] ...........................18 The Ruling for the Woman Pertaining to Intercourse.............................................................19 The kaffrah Must be Done in Order, not by Choice......................................................20 It is Permissible to Taste Food.........................................................................................20 Kissing While Fasting..........................................................................................................20 Actions that Decrease from One's Reward of Fasting.....................................................21 Breaking One's Fast Quickly............................................................................................22 A Supplication for Breaking Fast.....................................................................................23 Delaying the Pre-Dawn Meal.............................................................................................23 Rulings for Making up Days.............................................................................................24 EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 3 [An Introduction to the Study Guide] Before the reader are brief and concise notes from a four-day seminar that was conducted at Masjid Muqbil Ibn Hd al-Wdi [d. 1422 AH] in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania1 on the topic of "Fiqh Rulings of Raman." The book that was used is titled: Akhar al-Mukhtairt, translated to mean: "The Most Concise Summary [on Fiqh Rulings].2" The book was written by Imm Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn [d. 1083 AH]. During the seminar, this concise book was coupled with parts of its explanation by the great, contemporary, elder scholar, Dr. li b. Fawzn al-Fawzn3, may Allh protect him. When reading the study guide, that which is preceded by a bullet point is the speech of the author of Akhar al-Mukhtairt, Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn, and other than that is the speech of Dr. li b. Fawzn al-Fawzn. That which is from the translator is proceeded by [TN], translator's notes. Finally, this study guide is not meant to be a comprehensive guide to the fiqh of fasting. Rather, it is meant to be as brief and concise as possible. Therefore, differing between the scholars of Islm will not be mentioned, and it is not far-fetched that the reader may read or hear different opinions other than those mentioned in this study guide. We ask Allh, the Exalted, to make this effort solely for Him. And may He, the All Able, make it of benefit to its compiler and to those who read it. And may Allh's peace and blessings be upon His last Messenger, al-Muaf, Muammad b. Abdillh. Written by: Ab dam Jaml Finch Umm al-Qur University, Makkah, K.S.A, College of Sharah Philadelphia, PA. West Oak Lane 25th of Shabn, 1432AH/July 23,2011 1 May Allh bless those in charge of the Masjid for having good thoughts of the lecturer and for allowing the seminar to take place. 2 [TN]: During the seminar, every issue in the chapter of fasting was not studied 3 [TN]: A member of The Permanent Committee of Scholars of Saudi Arabia EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 4 [An Important Principle of Seeking Knowledge] [TN]: Muammad b. Srn al-Bar [d. 110 AH]4, may Allh have mercy on him, said: "Indeed this religion is based upon knowledge. So, examine thoroughly from whom you take your knowledge."5 Shaykh Amad Bzml6, may Allh protect him, said about this statement: This is a famous statement. The people of knowledge deem it to be one of the most important principles for the student of Islamic knowledge [to abide by]. Rather, they deem it to be one of the most important principles of Islm. This is because this principle clarifies and distinguishes from whom knowledge is to be taken from, and from whom knowledge is not to be taken from.7 With that being said, we felt that it is very important to mention a few brief words about the author of the book that will be studied and the book itself, insh Allh. 4 [TN]: Muammad b. Srn [d. 110AH] was the freed slave of Anas b. Mlik [d. 92/93 AH], the servant of the Messenger of Allh, prayers and peace upon him. [Amad Bzml's, Summary of the Explanation of Ibn Srn's Statement, pg. 17] 5 [TN]: See Dr. Amad Bzml's explanation of this statement for a full discussion on its chain of narration. 6 [TN]: A scholar and teacher at Umm al-Qur University in Makkah, K.S.A 7 Amad Bzml, The Summary of the Explanation of Ibn Srn's Statement, 6 EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 5 [About the Book] Shaykh Muammad al-Subayyl8, may Allh protect him, said: Indeed, the book Akhar al-Mukhtairt which discusses the fiqh of Imm Amad b. anbal [d. 241 AH], may Allh have mercy on him, by the great scholar, Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn [d. 1083 AH] is from the relied upon texts [in fiqh]... The author desired to make studying fiqh easy for the beginner. So, the result was a book that reads smoothly, its meanings are clear and its arrangement is superb. This book also contains the most important issues [of fiqh].9 [About the Author] Shaykh Abdur-Ramn al-Dimishq, may Allh have mercy on him, said: He was a learned man and a pillar [of knowledge]. He was one of a kind in his days and time. He was Shaykh al-Islm. He was the adornment of those scholars who acted upon their knowledge. He was a pillar when it came to establishing the correct opinions on issues. And he was the essence of precision: Muammad b. Badr al-Dn b. Balbn al-anbal [d. 1083 AH].10 8 [TN]: The Head of Affairs at Masjid al-arm in Makkah and al-Madnah, lecturer and sermon giver therein. 9 Ibn Badrn, Footnotes on Akhar al-Mukhtairt, 11 10 Ibid, pg. 97 EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 6 [The Study Guide] [The Ruling on Fasting during the Month of Raman] Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: "Allh, the Most High, says: `O You who believe fasting has been made obligatory upon you just as it was made obligatory upon those who came before you.' "12/13 [Conditions for the Obligation of Fasting] 1. One must be Muslim 2. One must be of sound mind 3. One must be an adult15 4. One must be able to fast 11 Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn, Akhar al-Mukhtairt, 161 12 Srah al-Baqarah (2): 183 13 li al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtairt, vol.2/pp. 60-61 14 Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn, Akhar al-Mukhtairt, 161 15 [TN]: A Muslim reaches adulthood by one of four matters: growing pubic hair, being emitting sperm, reaching the age of 15 or having a menstrual cycle. EMBODY "One must fulfill four conditions before Raman becomes obligatory upon him or her:"14 "It is obligatory to fast the month of Raman."11 ISLAM 1432AH/2011 [When Does the Month of Raman Enter] 1. By sighting the crescent 2. By completing thirty days of Shabn Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: The Messenger of Allh, prayers and peace upon, said: "Begin fasting when you "Raman enters by one of two ways:"16 7 sight the moon and end fasting when you sight the moon. And if you are unable to sight it, complete the month of Shabn thirty days."17 [Astrological Calculations are an Innovation] Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: "Those who seek to begin fasting the month of Raman by using astrological calculations have added and innovated into the religion that which Allh and Messenger, prayers and peace upon him, did not command us with [in this adth]."18 16 Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn, Akhar al-Mukhtairt, 161 17 al-Bukhr and Muslim 18 li al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtasirt, vol.2/pp. 60-61 EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 [The Correct Creed is What Will Unite This Nation] Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: ...People try to oblige all of the Muslims to begin their fasts at one time. However, they fail to realize that this action of theirs is not the key to uniting the Muslims. Rather, that which will unite the Muslims is adhering to the correct creed based upon the Qurn, the Sunnah upon the interpretations of the pious predecessors (i.e. al-Salaf al- li)... Imm Mlik b. Anas [d. 179 AH], may Allh have mercy on him, said: `The latter of this nation will not be rectified except by that which rectified the beginning of this nation.'19 [Clarification of Who Must Refrain from Eating in the Middle of the Day During Raman] "If fasting becomes obligatory [for someone] during the middle of the day in Raman20, or, if a traveller returns home while he isn't fasting, or, if a 8 menstruating woman becomes pure during the day in Raman, they must make that day up and refrain from eating the remainder of the day."21 19 li al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtairt, vol.2/pg. 62 20 Examples of this are: someone accepting Islm, a child becoming and adult, a [woman becoming pure from her menses], or the one who is insane becoming sane during the course of the day in Raman. [Ibn Badrn, Footnotes on Akhsar al-Mukhtairt, pg. 162 and Ibn al-Uthaymn, Shar al-Mumti, vol.6/pg334. 21 Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn, Akhar al-Mukhtairt, 161 EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: The traveller, the menstruating woman, the child, or other than them, if their [Islamically legislated] excuse [for not fasting] becomes non- existent during the day in Raman, they must refrain from eating the rest of the day and make that day up. The reason they must make that day up is because they did not refrain from eating the whole of the day, and the reason they must refrain from eating is out of respect for the month of Raman.22 [Those Who are Excused from Fasting] "Whoever breaks his fast due to old age or an illness that there is know known cure for, and he is unable to fast, he must feed a needy person for everyday that he does not fast." "And it is recommended for the traveller, who is shortening his prayer, and the sick, who are both facing hardship, to break their fasts." "And if a pregnant woman or breast-feeding woman breaks her fast because she is afraid of harming herself, then she must make that day up." 22 li al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhsar al-Mukhtairt, vol.2/pg. 66 EMBODY 9 ISLAM 1432AH/2011 "And if the pregnant or breastfeeding woman breaks her fast because she is afraid of harming her fetus child, then they must make up the day, and he who is responsible for the child must feed a needy person on her behalf."23 Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: "As it relates to people and excuses when fasting, then there are five categories: 1. The Healthy Resident: His ruling is that he must fast on that day. 2. The Sick and the Traveller: Their ruling is that it is permissible for them to break their fasts, and they must make up each day that they doe not fast. Allh, the Most High, says: "And whoever is ill or on a journey, he must make up the exact number of days from other days."24 3. The Elderly Man and The Chronically Ill whose illness there is know known cure for, and they are both unable to fast: Their ruling is that they do not have to fast, nor do they have to make their days up. However, they must feed a needy person for every day they do not fast. Allh, The Most High, says: "As for those who can fast (i.e. with difficulty), they have to feed a needy person."25/26 10 23 Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn, Akhar al-Mukhtairt, 162 24 Srah al-Baqarah (2): 185 25 Srah al-Baqarah (2): 184 26 Ibn Abbs [d. 68 AH], may Allh be pleased with him, said about this verse: "This verse is pertaining to the elderly who are unable to fast, so they feed a needy person for each day they do not fast." [al-Bukhr] EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 4. The Menstruating Woman and the Woman with Postpartum Bleeding: Their ruling is that they must make that day up, and that it is incorrect for them to fast. 5. The Pregnant Woman and the Breastfeeding Woman: The ruling for them is that they may possibly have to break their fast in order to repel harm to either the mother or the child. Therefore, if they break their fast because: 1. They are afraid of harming themselves (i.e. they are not worried about the well-being of the fetus or the child) then it is upon them to make up that day up only. This is because the ruling of the sick person applies to them. Or: 2. They are afraid of harming their fetus or child [by fasting] (i.e. they are not worried about the health of themselves), then it is upon them to do two things: make up that day and feed a needy person for every day that they do no not fast, and this is the verdict given by some of the companions. And the feeding of the needy person is the responsibility of he who is responsible for providing for the fetus or breastfeeding baby.27 11 27 li al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtairt, vol.2/pp. 66, 67 & 69 EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 [The Ease of Islm] Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: If the traveller or the sick person fasts, their fasts are correct. However, it is better, if their fasts are difficult for them, to take the Islamic concession that has been afforded to them. Allh, the Most High, says: `And whoever is ill or on a journey, he must make up the exact number of days from other days. Allh desires ease for you and He does not desire hardship for you.'28 The meaning of ease in this verse is taking the concession (i.e. the allowance of breaking fast), and the meaning of hardship is applying the original ruling (i.e. fasting).29 [The Ruling of the Intention to Fast During Raman] Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: The intention for all obligatory fasts must be made at night. This is whether the fast is being performed on its original day, being made up, an expiation, or [a fast that has become obligatory because of] a vow. 28 Srah al-Baqarah (2): 185 29 Sli al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtasirt, vol.2/pg. 66 30 Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn, Akhar al-Mukhtairt, 162 EMBODY "An obligatory fast is incorrect unless accompanied by the intention made in any part of the [previous] night..."30 12 ISLAM 1432AH/2011 The Messenger of Allh, prayers and peace upon, him said: "Whoever does not make his intention to fast, at night, before fajr, then there is no fast for him."31 So, if one makes the intention to fast before fajr then his fast is correct because he actualized his intention at night.32/33 [Things that Break the Fast and Their Categories] [Whoever enters anything into his stomach or throat has broken his fast]34 13 "Whoever forces himself to vomit, or ejaculates due to masturbation, touching their spouse, or repeatedly looking [at the opposite sex] they have broken their fast. And whoever intends to break their fast, or performs cupping, or is cupped, they have broken their fast..."35 31 Authenticated by Imm al-Albn. See al-Irw: 4/25. 32 [TN]: The time frame for one to make intention to fast begins at maghrib and ends at fajr. 33 Sli al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhhar al-Mukhtasirt, vol.2/pg. 71 34 [TN]: Summarized 35 Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn, Akhar al-Mukhtairt, 163 EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 Shaykh Sli al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: Things that break one's fast are categories: 1. That which breaks one's fast and one must make up the day only 2. That which breaks one's fast and one must make the day up and perform a kaffarah (i.e. expiation)36 Things that break one's fast are other categories as well: 1. That which breaks the fast by entering the body 2. That which breaks the fast by exiting the body37 [Things that Break One's Fast by Entering the Body] Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: [A fasting person] must refrain from food and drink. He or she also must refrain from that which is like food and drink. He or she must refrain from that which enters the stomach or throat... And what is meant by those things that are similar to food and drink are nutritional needles and ivies.38 14 36 [TN]: al-Imm al-ajjw [d. 968 AH], may Allh have mercy on him, said: "Nothing obligates a kaffrah (i.e. expiation) except intercourse during the days of Raman." [See Zd al-Mustaqni, pg. 152] 37 li al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtasirt, vol.2/pp. 72 38 li al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtasirt, vol.2/pp. 72-73 EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 [Things that Break One's Fast by Exiting the Body] Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: That which breaks one's fast that exits the body is what follows: 1. Causing One's Self to Vomit: The Messenger of Allh, prayers and peace 15 upon him, said: `Whoever is overcome by vomit, then he doesn't have to make that day up, and whoever causes himself to vomit must make that day up.'39 2. Masturbation: The Messenger of Allh, prayers and peace upon him, said: `My slave has left of his food, his drink and his desires for me.'40 3. Touching in a Manner Which is Lesser than Intercourse and Ejaculating as a Result 4. Repeating Looking at Women Until One Ejaculates: If sperm exits, with desire, from a man because of him repeatedly looking at women, touching a woman or masturbating, his fast becomes void. His fast is null and void because he has done these things by choice and ejaculated as result. It is obligatory for the Muslim to lower his glaze. Allh, the Most High, says: `And say (O Muammad) to the believers: Lower your gazes and guard your private parts.'41 39 Authenticated by Imm al-Albn. See al-Irw: 4/51-52. 40 al-Bukhri and Muslim 41 Srah al-Nr (24): 30 EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 This verse is general, pertaining to Raman and other than Raman. However, during the month of Raman it deserves to be stressed even more...42 5. Intending to Break Your Fast: If a person intends to break his fast by cutting of his intention to fast, his fast becomes void. This is because it is a 16 must that his intention is continuous through-out the entire day, every day. So, if he cuts off his intention, he has broken his fast. The Messenger, prayers and peace upon him, said: `Verily actions are correct or incorrect due to intentions, and every person shall have what they intended.'43 6. Cupping or Being Cupped: Cupping is a Prophetic medicine. [The fiqh ruling on] cupping or being cupped is that they breaks one's fast. The Messenger of Allh, prayers and peace upon him, said: `The cupper and the cupped have both broken their fasts.'44 Similar to cupping is the one who has blood drawn for an emergency or for a blood bank. As for blood that exits from the body without one's choice, this has no effect on one's fast. 7. If Water from Inhaling into the Nose Enters into the Throat: If one forcefully inhales water thru his nose [during wu] and it enters his throat, his fast is broken. This is because he was the cause of water entering his throat. 42 li al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtairt, vol.2/pg. 75 43 al-Bukhr and Muslim 44 Authenticated by Imm al-Albn. See al-Irw: 4/65. EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 The Messenger of Allh, prayers and peace upon him, said: `Inhale water through your noses forcefully [during wu], except if you are fasting.'45/46 [Conditions for Actually Breaking One's Fast] Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: [The things that break one's fast must be done]: 1. Purposely: The Messenger of Allh, prayers and peace upon him, said: `Whoever eats forgetfully, and he is fasting, let him finish his fast. 17 Indeed, Allh is the One who provided him with [that] food and drink.'47 2. By Choice: The Messenger of Allh, prayers and peace upon him, said: `Allh had indeed pardoned my nation for that which they are forced to do.'48 3. Consciously: Allh, the Most High, says: `O our Lord, do not hold us accountable if we forget or make a mistake.'49/50 45 Authenticated by Imm al-Albn. See al-Mishk, pg. 405. 46 li al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtairt, vol.2/pg. 77 47 al-Bukhr and Muslim 48 Authenticated by Imm al-Albn. See al-Irw: 1/123. 49 Srah al-Baqarah (2): 286 50 li al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtairt, vol.2/pg. 77 EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 [That Which Breaks the Fast and Requires a Kaffrah (i.e. expiation)] 18 "And whoever has intercourse during the days of Raman, other than he who has shabaq51,then he must make that day up and perform the kaffrah (i.e. expiation)..."52 Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: If a man has intercourse with is wife, regardless if he ejaculates or not, even if he [only] enters his private into his her private, his fast is ruined, and it is upon him to make that day up and perform the kaffrah. This is because this action (i.e. mere penetration) is considered intercourse [as well]. Intercourse, eating and drinking have all been made permissible during the nights of Raman only. Allh, the Most High, says: `It has been made permissible for you to have sexual relations with your wives during the nights [of Raman].53 A man came to the Prophet prayers and peace upon him, said, `I am doomed, O Messenger of Allh!' He, prayers and peace upon him, said: `Why are you doomed?' He said: `I had intercourse with my wife (during the day) in Raman.' He said, `Can you free a slave?' He said: `No.' He said: `Can you fast for two consecutive months?' He said, `No.' He said: `Can you feed sixty poor persons?' He said, `No.' 51 Shaykh Fawzn mentions that: "Shabaq is a disease wherein an excessive amount of sperm gathers in the testicles, and if the person doesn't have intercourse, his testicles will explode. Ibid, vol.2/79 52 Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn, Akhar al-Mukhtairt, 163 53 Srah al-Baqarah (2): 187 EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 The Prophet prayers and peace upon him, fell silent. Whilst we were (sitting) like that, the Prophet prayers and peace upon him, was brought a container of dates. He said: `Where is the one who was asking?' The man said, `I (am here).' He said, `Take these and give them in charity.' The man said: `Who is poorer than I, O Messenger of Allh? There is no household between the two lava fields (i.e., in al- Madnah) that is poorer than my household.' The Prophet, prayers and peace upon him, smiled until his back teeth could be seen, then he said: `Feed it to your family.'54 This hadth shows that intercourse ruins one's fast and obligates the kaffrah. As for he who has shabaq (see footnote #51), it is permissible for him to have intercourse, and there is nothing upon him except to make up that day. [The Ruling for the Woman Pertaining to Intercourse] Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: As for the woman who has intercourse, if she is aware of the ruling and still agrees to intercourse, then the same ruling of making up that day and kaffrah apply to her just like the man. However, if she is forced, [she does not make that day up]55 nor does she have to perform a kaffrah.56 54 al-Bukhr and Muslim 55 Shaykh Uthaymn, Sharh al-Mumti, vol.6/pg.44 56 li al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtairt, vol.2/pg. 79 EMBODY 19 ISLAM 1432AH/2011 [The kaffrah Must be Done in Order, not by Choice] Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: 20 "The kaffrah must be done in order: so, one must free a slave, then, if he is unable, he must fast two consecutive months, then, if he is unable, he must feed sixty poor people."57 [It is Permissible to Taste Food] Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: "It is permissible to taste food as long as one does not swallow it. If the taste enters his throat, his fast is broken."58 [Kissing While Fasting] Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: It is disliked to kiss and that which is similar to it during the days of Raman because it could lead to intercourse. As for he who is able to control his desires such as an older man, whose desires aren't intense, it is permissible for him to kiss and that which is similar to it during Raman. This is because the Messenger of Allh, prayers and peace upon him, used to kiss his wives while he was fasting59 due to the fact that he was able to control his desires. 57 Ibid, 80 58 li al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtairt, vol.2/pg. 77 59 ishah, may Allh be pleased with her, said: "The Prophet, prayers and peace upon him, used to kiss and touch his wives while he was fasting." [al-Bukhar and Muslim] EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 So this [action of the Prophet, prayers and peace upon him,] shows that he who can control himself may kiss his wife while he is fasting. As for he who can't control his desires, kissing is disliked for him because it may lead to that which may break his fast. As for he who believes he will ejaculate due to kissing, kissing is impermissible for him...60 [Actions that Decrease from One's Reward of Fasting] "And it is extremely impermissible to lie, backbite, tale-carry and use verbal abuse [during Raman]."61 Shaykh li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: The fasting person abstains from the desires of the stomach and the privates. He also stays away from the desires of the tongue, such as backbiting, tale-carrying, lying and forms of verbal abuse such as cursing people, their [parents], finding fault with people and belittling people. The Messenger of Allh, prayers and peace upon him, said: "When one of you wakes up in the morning then he must not act foul or indecent. If a person verbally assaults you or tries to fight you, say [to him]: I am fasting. I am fasting."62 In other words, I am not going to respond to you because the fact that I am fasting prevents me from doing so.63 60 li al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtairt, vol.2/pg. 82 61 Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn, Akhar al-Mukhtairt, 163 62 al-Bukhri and Muslim 63 li al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtairt, vol.2/pg. 83 EMBODY 21 ISLAM 1432AH/2011 [Breaking One's Fast Quickly] "And it is recommended to break fast quickly."64 22 Al-`Allmah li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: It is sunnah to hasten to break one's fast once the sun has set due to the statement of Allh, the Most High, 'Then complete the fast until the night.'65; the night begins when the sun sets. Therefore, when it is realized that the sun has set, or [when] one overwhelmingly believes that the sun has set, this is when he breaks his fast. The Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace upon him, also said: '...[When] the sun sets, one should break fast.'66. Also in Hadth al- Quds, 'The most beloved of my slaves to me are those who break their fasts the quickest.'67/68 The proofs and evidences of breaking one's fast quickly are in [total] opposition to innovators who prolong breaking the fast until the stars appear.69 64 Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn, Akhar al-Mukhtairt, 164 65 Srah al-Baqarah (2): 187 66 al-Bukhr 67 Described as weak (a'f) by Shaykh al-Alban in al-Tirmith [#700]. 68 [TN]: On the authority of Sahl b. S'ad, may Allh be pleased with him: "The Messenger of Allh, prayers and peace upon him, said: 'People will remain upon good as long as they break their fasts quickly.' " [al-Bukhr] 69 Dr. lh al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtairt, vol.2/pg.84 EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 [A Supplication for Breaking Fast] Al-`Allmah li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: For example, one of the supplications that have been conveyed to us is: the "It is recommended to say what has been conveyed when breaking fast."70 23 supplication of the Messenger of Allh: "The thirst has gone, the veins are moist, and the reward is obtained, insh Allh."71 [Delaying the Pre-Dawn Meal] "And it is recommended to delay the pre-dawn meal."72 Al-`Allmah li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: It is from Prophetic tradition to delay the pre-dawn meal until a little before fajr prayer...There is a [hadth] that mentions that Messenger of Allh, prayers and peace upon him, used to delay the pre-dawn meal. So, it was asked to the narrator of the hadth: `What was the length of time between when the Prophet stopped eating [the pre-dawn] meal and the establishment of fajr prayer.' The narrator of the hadth said: `Between the time he, prayers and peace upon him, refrained from eating and the establishment prayer was the amount of time it takes to read fifty verses from the Qurn. 70 Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn, Akhar al-Mukhtairt, 164 71 Collected by Ab Dawd 72 Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn, Akhar al-Mukhtairt, 164 EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 As for those who begin their fasts from the middle of the night, or before fajr prayer, by stuffing themselves then going to sleep, consequently not awaking for fajr prayer because he doesn't want to interrupt his sleep, this action of his is against Prophetic tradition. He [winds up] leaving off fajr prayer and prayer in congregation. The person who does this has incurred many great sins. This person may even delay fajr until its proper time has exited, causing it to be unaccepted from him.73 [Rulings for Making Up Days] "It is recommended to make missed days up immediately and consecutively."74 Al-`Allmah li al-Fawzn, may Allh protect him, explained: If it is upon a person to make up days from Raman, let him rush to make these day up, and let him make them up consecutively. He does this in order to free himself of the responsibility of making these days up, and in order to rush to fulfill that which is obligatory upon him. It is also permissible to delay making these days as long as it is done before the next Raman. isha, may Allh be pleased with her, used to have to make up days, and she didn't make them up until the month of Shabn due to her status with the Messenger of Allh, prayers and peace upon him75. 24 73 li al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtairt, vol.2/pg. 85 74 Muammad b. Badr al-Dn Balbn, Akhar al-Mukhtairt, 164 75 On the authority of isha: "I used to have to make up fasts from Raman, but I wasn't able to make them up until Shabn. [al-Bukhr and Muslim] EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 So, this shows that it is permissible to delay making up missed days, especially if one has a need to.76 It is by Allh's grace that righteous actions are completed. And the last of my supplications is that all praise is due to the Lord of the Creation.77 And may Allh, the Most High, immensely reward all who aided in trying to ensure the accuracy of this project. Completed by: Ab dam Jaml Finch Umm al-Qur University, Makkah, K.S.A, College of Sharah Philadelphia, PA. West Oak Lane 30th of Shabn, 1432AH/July 31,2011 25 76 li al-Fawzn, An Explanation of Akhar al-Mukhtairt, vol.2/pg. 86 77 We ask the noble reader to please excuse any mistakes found in the study guide. Due to the rapid approach of Raman, it was compiled much quicker than we would have liked. All suggestions and corrections can be sent to: embodyislam215@gmail.com EMBODY ISLAM 1432AH/2011 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 03/19/2012 for the course REL 101 taught by Professor Professorsunni during the Spring '12 term at N.C. State.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online