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Unformatted text preview: Glomerular Filtration I. Filtrate from plasma in glomerulus basement mem of glom cap/ thru slits in processes of podocytes (inner layer of Bowmans capsule) A. Glomerular ultrafiltrate, formed under force of bp, low [protein] net filtration pressure = 10 mmHg B. GFR- filtrate vol by both kidneys: 115 to 125 ml/min.; 180L/day II. GFR regulated by constriction/dilation of afferent arterioles. A. Sympathetic innervation causes constriction of afferent arterioles. B. Intrinsic mechanisms autoregulate rate of renal blood flow and GFR. (V x U)/P = GFR V = rate of urine form.; u = [inulin] p =[blood inulin] Loop of Henle Kidney Medulla; Descending permeable to water, impermeable to salts, ascending vice versa Renal Pelvis collects urine from calyces and transports it to ureters/bladder Diuresis increased urine production - Lasix loop diuretic (inhibits salt/water reabsorption) out of ascending limb of loop of Henle; Lasix specifically for inhibiting sodium transport Nephron- functional unit of the kidneys, consisting of renal tubules, vascular component w/ capillaries; juxtamedullary nephrons = concentrated urine Aldosterone principal corticosteroid hormone in electrolyte balance; Na reabsorption/K secretion in distal convoluted tubule.; stimulated by rise in blood K/indirectly by fall in blood Na; v blood flow thru kidneys enzyme renin from juxtaglomerular apparatus catalyzes angiotensin I formation converted to angiotensin II ( OCCURS IN LUNGS) stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone; Reabsorption - Countercurrent multiplier (positive feedback) system- reabsorption of remaining water (vasa recta/loop of Henle) Renal Pyramids located in medulla; separated by renal columns; empty urine into calyces that drain into renal pelvis Turners Syndrome females with XO chromosomes; Klinefelters XXY Spermatids four produced from one spermatocyte spermiogenesis process separating mature spermatozoa using sertoli cell/protamine protein hCG- Trophoblast cells of blastocyst secrete hCG (~LH/TSH); maintains corpus luteum for the first 10 weeks of pregnancy. cGMP Phosphodiesterase made by guanylate cyclase closes Ca channels smooth muscle relaxation/vasodilation Gonadotropin GnRH (hypo) LH/FSH (ant. Pit); LH leydig cells testosterone; FSH sertoli cells inhibin 5-alpha reductase converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) needed for development/maintenance of penis, urethra, scrotum, prostate Amenorrhea cessation of menstrual cycle Corpus luteum empty follicle LH from ant. Pit corpus luteum secretes estradiol/progesterone FAS Ligands made by sertoli cells triggers apoptosis of T lymphocytes; induce death of beta cells (pancreas); Colostrum secretion infant feeds on for first 2/3 days until true lactation; contains IgA subclass antibodies; passive immunity Graves disease autoimmune disease; antigen = receptor proteins for...
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This note was uploaded on 03/20/2012 for the course MCB 32 taught by Professor Smiley during the Fall '11 term at Cal Poly.
- Fall '11