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Bio Notes March 4

Bio Notes March 4 - Bio Notes March 4-Review Digestion and...

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Bio Notes March 4 -Review - Digestion and Nutrition ---- Study all of 41.1 to 44.4 for exam – regardless of coverage in today’s lecture Temporal Menestra- -- The Fox2P gene was isolated I a variety of mammals , including mice, choimps, and orangutans. “The Economist” --- The shape of things to come ---- Vitamin K is not involved in the production of red blood cells. Some extra info.: The function of vitamin K in the cell is to convert glutamate in proteins to gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla). Within the cell, vitamin K undergoes electron reduction to a reduced form of vitamin K (called vitamin K hydroquinone) by the enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase (or VKOR). [68] Another enzyme then oxidizes vitamin K hydroquinone to allow carboxylation of Glu to Gla; this enzyme is called the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase [69] [70] or the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. The carboxylation reaction will only proceed if the carboxylase enzyme is able to oxidize vitamin K hydroquinone to vitamin K epoxide at the same time; the carboxylation and epoxidation reactions are said to be coupled reactions. Vitamin K epoxide is then re- converted to vitamin K by vitamin K epoxide reductase . These two enzymes comprise the so-called vitamin K cycle . [71] One of the reasons humans are rarely deficient in vitamin K is that vitamin K is continually recycled in our cells. 1914 Joseph Goldberger - vitamin- B3 (niacin) deficiency, these were used in sharecroppers working in cornfields. (Corn) ------ When it was a disease back then, it was called Pellagra (4 “D” syndrome) Hint- Importance of vitamin overdosage. Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, are digested differently. ---- The frist type of macromolecule to be worked ob by enzymes in the human digestive system is carbohydrates.
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Carbohydrate Digestion: -We produce about 1 – 1.5 liters of saliva in 24 hours.
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