Chm 635-1

Chm 635-1 - 1 • Metabolism An Overview • Glycolysis •...

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Unformatted text preview: 1/10/2012 1 • Metabolism: An Overview • Glycolysis • The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle • Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation • Gluconeogenesis, Glycogen Metabolism and Pentose Phosphate Pathway • Fatty Acid Metabolism • Lipid Biosynthesis • Amino Acid Metabolism • Synthesis and Degradation of Nucleotides • DNA Metabolism • Transcription and the Regulation of Gene Expression • Protein Synthesis • The Reception and Transmission of Extracellular Information 1008 Biochemistry: Dynamic Aspects Introduction to Metabolism • Metabolism- the entire network of chemical reactions carried out by living cells (is the sum of cellular reactions) • Metabolites- small molecule intermediates in the degradation and synthesis of polymers • Catabolic reactions- degrade molecules to create smaller molecules and energy • Anabolic reactions- synthesize molecules for cell maintenance, growth and reproduction 1/10/2012 2 More than 500 different chemical intermediates, or metabolites, and a greater number of enzymes are represented here. Organisms show remarkable similarity in their major metabolic pathways Map of the major metabolic pathways in a typical cell. Anabolism and Catabolism are Interrelated Products from one provide substrates for the other. Many intermediates are shared between anabolism and catabolism. 1/10/2012 3 Forms of metabolic pathways (a) Linear (b) Cyclic 1/10/2012 4 The Pathways of Catabolism Converge to a Few End Products Glucose Metabolism Amino Acid Metabolism Nucleotide Metabolism Fatty Acid Metabolism Overview of Glucose Catabolism 1/10/2012 5 1. Principal Characteristics of Metabolic Pathways. 2. Regulation of Metabolism. 3. Thousands of specific-enzyme catalyzed reactions, however only five kinds of catagories. 4. Free energy is stored in ATP and NADPH during catabolism. ATP and NADPH are the sources of free energy for biosynthetic reactions. 5. Cells require sources of free energy. 6. Thermodynamics of Phosphate Compounds: ATP synthesis and consumption. 7. The Flow of Electrons can do Biological Work (Reducing power). Introduction to Metabolism Principal Characteristics of Metabolic Pathways 1. Irreversible. 2. Catabolic and anabolic pathways must differ. 3. Every metabolic pathway has an exergonic first committed step. 4. Specific subcellular compartments. 5. All metabolic pathways are regulated, usually at the first committed step. 6. Some linear, some branched, some cyclic . 7. Reciprocal regulation of anabolic and catabolic reaction sequences, when one is active, the other is suppressed. At least one reaction is thermodynamically very favorable. Catabolism (Mitochondria) Fatty acid Anabolism (Cytosol) 1/10/2012 6 Metabolic Regulation Requires Different Pathways for Oppositely Directed Metabolic Sequences Metabolic pathways in eukaryotic cells occur in specific cellular locations Metabolic Functions of Eukaryotic Organelles 1/10/2012 7 Compartmentation of metabolic processes • Single-step vs multi-step...
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Chm 635-1 - 1 • Metabolism An Overview • Glycolysis •...

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