Chm 635-2

Chm 635-2 - 1/13/2012 Major pathways of glucose utilization...

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1/13/2012 1 Major pathways of glucose utilization 1. Complete oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide and water proceeds with a standard free-energy change of ~2,840 kJ/mol. 2. Storage as starch or glycogen. 3. When demands increases, glucose can be released from these intracellular storage polymers and used to produce ATP either aerobically or anaerobically. Why Glucose ?
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1/13/2012 2 Glycolysis = breakdown of sugars; glycogen, glucose, fructose Where in cell? What are the inputs? What are the outcomes? Oxygen required? The Fates of Pyruvate From Glycolysis
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1/13/2012 3 Net reaction of glycolysis Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 NAD + + 2 P i 2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H + + 2 H 2 O Glycolysis Has 10 Enzyme-Catalyzed Steps • Each chemical reaction prepares a substrate for the next step in the process • A hexose is cleaved to two trioses • Interconversion of the trioses allows both to be further metabolized via glycolytic enzymes • ATP is both consumed and produced in glycolysis http://www.northland.cc.mn.us/biology/Biology1111/animations/glycolysis.html
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1/13/2012 4 Glycolysis (10 reactions) can be divided into two stages • Hexose stage: 2 ATP are consumed per glucose • Triose stage: 4 ATP are produced per glucose Net: 2 ATP produced per glucose G reaction = G o’ reaction + RT ln([C][D]/[A][B])
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1/13/2012 5 Reactions and Thermodynamics of Glycolysis
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1/13/2012 6 Phosphorylation of Glucose G = G’ + RT ln [C][D] [A][B] Is this the committed step? 1
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1/13/2012 7 Glucose-6-P is common to several metabolic pathways Glucose-6-phosphate is the branch point for several metabolic pathways. Hexokinase Primes the Pump for Glycolysis Just as a water pump must be “primed” with water to get more water out, the glycolytic pathway is primed with ATP in steps 1 and 3 in order to achieve net production of ATP in the second phase of the pathway.
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1/13/2012 8 Glucose is kept in the cell by phosphorylation to glucose-6-phosphate Glucose-6-P cannot cross the plasma membrane. ADP
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This note was uploaded on 03/20/2012 for the course CHM 635 taught by Professor Dr.kavitashah during the Spring '11 term at Purdue.

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Chm 635-2 - 1/13/2012 Major pathways of glucose utilization...

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