Chm 635-12

Chm 635-12 - Fatty Acid Catabolism Occurs in Mitochondria...

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1 After uptake from the bloodstream, catabolism of the fatty acid requires three steps: 1) Activation of the fatty acid to a fatty acyl CoA 2) Uptake into mitochondria 3) Degradation ( -oxidation) http://www.brookscole.com/chemistry_d/templates/student_resources/sha red_resources/animations/carnitine/carnitine1.html Fatty Acid Catabolism Occurs in Mitochondria In the outer membrane of mitochondria by acyl-CoA synthetases, “driven” by ATP hydrolysis Isozymes of this family are specific for short, medium, and long chain fatty acids (several Isozymes) 1) Activation of the fatty acid
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2 2) Import into Mitochondria After the transfer of the fatty acid from CoA to carnitine by carnitine acyltransferase I, An acyl-carnitine/carnitine antiport transporter brings the FA-carnitine ester across the inner membrane by facilitated diffusion, after which carnitine acyltransferase II transfers the fatty acyl group back to CoA, releasing free carnitine and FA-CoA into the mitochondrial matrix 3. The -oxidation pathway of fatty acyl-CoA.
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3 1. Short, medium, and long chain dehydrogenase isozymes catalyze  double bond formation The First Step of -Oxidation Fig. 17-8a
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4 12-18 Long-chain CoA dehydrogenase 14-6 Medium chain CoA dehydrogenase 4-6 Small chain CoA dehydrogenase
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5 The acyl-CoA dehydrogenase reaction. The two electrons removed in this oxidation reaction are delivered to the electron-transport chain in the form of reduced coenzyme Q (UQH 2 ). 2. Addition of water by the hydratase forms a -hydroxy derivative The Second Step of -Oxidation Fig. 17-8a enoyl-CoA hydratase , also called crotonase
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6 3. Another dehydrogenase step forms -ketoacyl-CoA The Third Step of -Oxidation Fig. 17-8a L-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase , an enzyme that requires NAD + as a coenzyme. The Fourth Step of -Oxidation •4 . F r o m -ketoacyl-CoA, the n-2 chain can be transferred to free CoA by thiolase , releasing acetyl-CoA Fig. 17-8a
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7 +1 FADH 2 + 1 NADH +1 FADH 2 + 1 NADH +1 FADH 2 + 1 NADH
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8 -Oxidation of a C 16 Fatty Acid The overall equation for this oxidation is: Palmitoyl-CoA + 7 CoA + 7O 2 + 28 P i + 28 ADP 8 Acetyl-CoA + 28 ATP + 7H 2 O Through the TCA cycle, the 8 acetyl-CoAs generate another 80 ATPs + 16H 2 O + 16CO 2 Complete β -Oxidation of One Palmitic Acid Yields 106 Molecules of ATP
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Chm 635-12 - Fatty Acid Catabolism Occurs in Mitochondria...

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