Chapter 5(1) - The Structure and Function of Large...

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Unformatted text preview: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Chapter 5 Macromolecules Polymers are long molecules consisting of many similar building blocks ( monomers ) linked by covalent bonds. Carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids Synthesis of Polymers Dehydration synthesis Condensation reaction Two monomers are bonded together through loss of a water molecule. One monomer loses a hydrogen (-H), the other a hydroxyl group (-OH). These combine to make water. Enzymes facilitate the reaction. Breakdown of Polymers Hydrolysis Bonds between monomers are broken down by the addition of water. Digestion Four Major Groups of Organic Compounds Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates Fuel Building materials Monomers are called monosaccharides . Carbohydrates Consist of c arbon, h ydrogen, and o xygen atoms. Carbon chain Multiple OH groups Have a carbonyl group C=O carbonyl group on the end of the molecule is an aldose carbonyl groups as part of the central chain of carbons is a ketose. Carbohydrates In simple carbohydrates the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is always 2 to 1 (H 2 O) Includes simple sugars, starch, cellulose Classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides Monosaccharides 5-Carbon Deoxyribose Ribose 6-Carbon Glucose Galactose Fructose Disaccharides...
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Chapter 5(1) - The Structure and Function of Large...

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