human sex midterm 2 WORDDOC

human sex midterm 2 WORDDOC - midterm 2 Chapter 8 Fertility...

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midterm 2 2/3/09  Chapter 8: Fertility, Pregnancy, & Childbirth o Pregnancy & Childbirth raise major health concerns, risks have decreased but still room for improve- ment · Bring both joy and terror – excitement of raising child and fear of death/injury to mother or child · 80% of pregs in US end in live child birth 1 in 10,000 pregs end in death of mother o stats are much worse for minorities o pregnancy is confirmed by hormonal tests · fertilization takes place in oviduct when sperm enters ovum & fertilizes it o implantation – attachment of embryo to endometrium, establishes preg o human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) – hormone secreted by implanted embryo, pres- ence is an indicator of preg, stops menstrual cycle · missed period, breast tenderness, fatigue, & nausea = signs of preg · preg tests detect hCG in mother’s blood or urine, lab tests can detect it almost immediately after  implantation, several days before missed period · home preg tests detect by 1 st  day of missed period or 3 days before, thru urine, not as reliable · ultrasound – imaging procedure that depends on reflection of ultrasonic waves form density  boundaries w/i body; can see embryos after 5-6 weeks and detect heartbeat after 7-10 weeks o the likelihood of achieving preg can be maximized by tracking ovulation · 20% chance of preg per month in young couple who have sex several times a week w/o contra- ceptives o 93% chance in first year, if not pregnant after 1 year = subfertile o subfertility – difficulty in establishing a pregnancy coitus is most likely to result in preg when it takes place on same day as ovulation (33%) o ovulation: total cycle length minus 14 days = interval from beginning of menst   ovula- tion
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o sperm survive in female repro system for several days -> preg can result up to 5 days  before ovulation (10% chance) if F has regular 28-day cycle, time of ovul can be estimated o also measured by tracking basal body temp, observation of changes in consistency of  cervical mucus, & ovul test kits easiest to achieve preg if man does not ejac frequently, use missionary position and F remain on  back for 30 min after, and avoid douching o Infertility can result form problems in M or F · Infertility – inability to achieve preg (M or F) · Variety of factors can reduce sperm counts o Most common condition affecting fert = insufficient/poor quality sperm, cause 25% of  couple’s difficulties in achieving preg o Possible causes: undescended testicles, sex chromosome abnormalities, infections that  block repro tract, intensive chemo, & environmental toxins Solutions: o
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