Notes Chapter 27-28

Notes Chapter 27-28 - Chapter 27 and 28 The Hidden World of...

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Chapter 27 and 28 The Hidden World of Microbes 5/7/2011 9:59:00 Microbes x Too small to be seen clearly without a microscope x Prokaryotes range in size .2-1.0 micro meter x Unicellular eukaryotes range in size 10-100 micro meters x How big is a micro meter? o 1/1,000,000 of a meter o the period at end of sentence is abt 1000 micrometer other biological entities x even smaller than bacteria x viruses aren’t living so not entities o aren’t organisms because the don’t have all of the characteristics of living organisms o cant reproduce o small ( .05- .2 micro meters) and come in many different shapes o HIV reproduces fast o Parts ± 1. Genome à genetic info à can be either single-stranded or double stranded DNA or RNA ± 2. Capsid à protein coat which surrounds and protects genome ± 3. Envelope à membrane (phospholipid bilayer) which surrounds the capsid x hydrphillic outside, hydrophobic inside o hijack cells ± touch doorknob and become host for virus ± viruses most have new host to reproduce, otherwise they can’t last very long ± highly specific for organisms it infects à except flu viruses x not organisms
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viroids x not biological entities x even simpler and smaller than viruses x fragment of single stranded RNA x hijack cells; infects primarily plant cells including citrus trees, potatoes and avocadoes prions x unusual infectious particles x protein particle with no genetic material (DNA, RNA) x mad cow disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru o not virus or viroid o non biological entity o affects brain tissue and neurons o proteins in brain clump together differently and aren’t able to function that way ± active site can’t bind ± proteins are suppose to maintain a certain pH o prions consist of a protein that is folded wrong and makes
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Notes Chapter 27-28 - Chapter 27 and 28 The Hidden World of...

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