EXAM GUIDE 2 - POPULATION 1 Demography-Scientific study of...

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POPULATION 1 Demography -Scientific study of human populations//Examines size, composition, distribution, and the changes and causes of the three. Population- A group of people who share a geographic territory//Vary in size from a small town to the planet//1804 = 1 billion//2005 = 6.5 billion//2050 ~ 9.4 billion Fertility —# of babies born during a specific period in a society Crude birth rate —# of live births per 1,000 population in a given year//In 2009 the CBR was 20 worldwide, 36 for Africa, and 14 for the U.S.//In the U.S., birth rates are higher for younger women, recent immigrants, and those with low income and education levels. Mortality —# of deaths during specified period in a population Crude death rate —# of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a given year//In 2009, the crude death rate worldwide, as well as in the U.S., was 8. Infant mortality rate —# of deaths among infants under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births//In 2009, infant mortality was 4 for the U.S. but 155 for Afghanistan. Life Expectancy- A verage number of years that people who were born at the same time will live//In 2009, worldwide = 69.//The U.S. = 78, below at least 25 other developed countries. Migration -Movement of people into or out of a specific geographic area// Push factors encourage or force people to leave a residence. //Ex: war, religious persecution, or unemployment.// Pull factors attract people to a new location. //Ex: employment opportunities, religious freedom, and lower crime rates. International migration —the movement across a national border// Emigrants move out of a country.// Immigrants move into a country. POPULATION AND URBANIZATION Sex ratio —the proportion of males to females in a group//100—equal numbers of males and females//95—fewer males than females//105—fewer females than males Population Pyramids- A visual representation of the age and sex structure of a population//Allow demographers to predict future needs of a population. //Ex. an aging population will need more long-term health care. Malthusian theory —the belief that the population is growing faster than the food supply needed to sustain it.//Thomas Malthus -1798 –population grows at a geometric rate while food grows at an arithmetic rate. Neo-Malthusians- Agree that the world population is exploding beyond food supplies. Earth has become a dying planet with increasing population and pollution. Demographic Transition Theory -Maintains that population growth is kept in check and stabilizes as countries experience economic development.//Population growth changes as societies undergo industrialization, modernization, technological advancements, and urbanization Stage 1 Preindustrial societies with high birth rates and high death rates// Stage 2 Early industrialization with significant population growth because of high birth rates but lower death rates// Stage 3 Advanced industrialization with lower birth rates and death rates and a lower population growth rate//S
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EXAM GUIDE 2 - POPULATION 1 Demography-Scientific study of...

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