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Exam 4 Review - POLS 206 American National Government...

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POLS 206 American National Government Review Sheet-Test 4 This is a list of general topics you will need to know in order to do well on the fourth test. This test covers three chapters including the topics of the budget, social welfare policy and national defense policy. 1) *Know the budget process -Budget requests are directed through the OMB and president before going to Congress -The budget process is time consuming – starting nearly a year in advance -The OMB, the president, and the agencies negotiate budget requests -The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974: an act designed to reform the congressional budgetary process -It established the following: -Fixed budget calendar -A budget committee in each House -The CBO, which advises Congress on the probable consequences of its decisions, forecasts revenues, and is counterweight to OMB -Budget to be considered as a whole -A budget resolution bounds Congress to a bottom line for the budget before Congress considers appropriations 2) *Know the appropriations process. Who authorizes appropriations? -The current budget is then reconciled – program authorizations are revised to achieve required savings -Congress authorizes appropriations 3) What is incrementalism? -The idea that last year’s budget is the best predictor of this year’s budget, plus some -Agencies can safely assume they will get at least what they got last year -Focus and debate on the increase over last year -Budgets tend to go up a little each year 4) *What is the military industrial complex? -Term coined by Eisenhower meaning: the cooperative relationship between the military and the industrial producers of military equipment and supplies in lobbying for increased spending on military programs. 5) *What is budget reconciliation? -Legislative process intended to allow consideration of budget bills with limit of 20 hour debate under senate rules.
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