Elements of Persuasion, Gans's Elements of Journalism

Elements of Persuasion, Gans's Elements of Journalism -...

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Unformatted text preview: Political Ads Assignment Political Ads Assignment Semiotics Body Language Rhetoric Ad placement/ media mix Target audience Content analysis Hermeneutics News Values and Elements of Journalism (Gans) Political ads Political ads Semiotics – Study of signs, signifiers, signified Rhetoric – Logos ­ logic, ordered reasoning – Pathos – emotions, suffering, not only to respond emotionally but with passionate delivery on the part of the sender, the receiver might identify with the sender’s point of view – Ethos – guiding set of beliefs of a society or community Political ads Epistemology – study of knowledge and justified belief Hermeneutics – study of interpretation, what will the audience/receiver interpret the message to mean? Herbert J. Gans’s News Values and The Elements of Journalism • Herbert Gans is a Professor of Sociology at Columbia University from 1971­2007 •Gans came to America in 1940 as a refugee from Nazism and has sometimes described his scholarly work as an immigrant's attempt to understand America. •He is a skilled and articulate student of elements of influence among the masses, including media Sociologist Herbert J. Sociologist Herbert J. Gans’s News Values * In an in­depth analysis and observation of the “CBS Evening News,” “NBC Nightly News,” Newsweek, and Time, Herbert Gans reported that journalists based their reporting on their inherent assumptions about the nature of external reality. He called these assumptions, enduring values. Herbert J. Gans, Deciding What's News : A Study of CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News, Newsweek, and Time (Medill Visions of the American Press) , Constable, 1980. Eight Enduring Values Eight Enduring Values Ethnocentrism – We tend to value our own country and culture above all others. – Ex. Americans value their own nation above all others. Altruistic Democracy – Democracy is the best form of government, and government officials should behave altruistically and citizens should be involved at the grassroots level. Responsible Capitalism – Unions and consumer organizations are accepted as countervailing pressures on business and are judged negatively. – Economic growth is a positive phenomenon; government regulation is bad. Eight Enduring Values Eight Enduring Values cont’d Small­town Pastoralism – The rural and anti­industrial value of Jefferson are found in the news. Nature and smallness are desirable—environmentalism. Individualism – Preservation of the freedom of the individual, “rugged individualism” and self­made people are admired. Moderatism – Discourages excess or extremism. Eight Enduring Values Eight Enduring Values cont’d The value of Social Order – Seen primarily in coverage of social disorder – When media cover disorder, the focus is on restoration of order The media value Leadership – The media tend to look at the actions of leaders while the actions of lower­level bureaucrats are often ignored. (Trend to report on Individualism above) Bias Bias Both liberals and conservatives argue that since both sides criticize the press, they must be doing a good, balanced job (Hanson, 2007) If there is bias in the news, it is probably toward these eight values as much as it is liberal or conservative. – With the exception of Fox News and MSNBC – And most blogs and blog aggregators such as The Huffington Post The Elements of The Elements of Journalism * 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Journalism’s first obligation is to the truth. Its first loyalty is to citizens. Its essence is a discipline of verification. Its practitioners must maintain an independence from those they cover. It must serve as an independent monitor of power. It must provide a forum for public criticism and compromise. Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel, The Elements of Journalism: What Newspeople Should Know and the Public Should Expect, Crown Publishers, 2001. The Elements of Journalism, Cont’d. The Elements of Journalism, Cont’d. 7. 8. 9. It must strive to make the significant interesting and relevant. It must keep the news comprehensive and proportional. Its practitioners must be allowed to exercise their personal conscience. The Elements of The Elements of Journalism “Kovach and Rosensteil contend that newsgathering and reporting on the Web, or any other platform, can be measured against these principles. They acknowledge that reporters won’t meet each standard on every story, but those who succeed more often than they fail are worthy of being called journalists.” Robert Berkman, Digital Dilemmas, p. 69 Hanson’s “Seven Truths” 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The media are essential components of our lives There are no Main Stream Media Everything from the margin moves to the center Nothing’s new: Everything that has happened will happen again New media are always scary Activism and Analysis are not the same thing There is no “They” Media Debate Topics for the Semester Freedom of Speech­At What Cost? Media Conglomeration Is Negative Campaigning Bad for the American Political Process? Is Public Relations Valuable to Society? Is Televisions Harmful for Children? Do the mass media perpetuate ethnic and racial stereotypes? The Ethics of Photographs Are the News Media Liberal? Is Advertising Ethical? Is Downloading Helping or Hurting the Music Industry? Rape Victim’s Names ...
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