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Unformatted text preview: Political Ads Assignment
Political Ads Assignment Semiotics
Ad placement/ media mix
Hermeneutics News Values and Elements of Journalism (Gans) Political ads
Political ads Semiotics – Study of signs, signifiers, signified Rhetoric – Logos logic, ordered reasoning
– Pathos – emotions, suffering, not only to respond emotionally but with passionate delivery on the part of the sender, the receiver might identify with the sender’s point of view
– Ethos – guiding set of beliefs of a society or community Political ads Epistemology – study of knowledge and justified belief Hermeneutics – study of interpretation, what will the audience/receiver interpret the message to mean? Herbert J. Gans’s
News Values and The Elements of Journalism
• Herbert Gans is a Professor of Sociology at Columbia University from 19712007
•Gans came to America in 1940 as a refugee from Nazism and has sometimes described his scholarly work as an immigrant's attempt to understand America.
•He is a skilled and articulate student of elements of influence among the masses, including media Sociologist Herbert J. Sociologist Herbert J. Gans’s News Values * In an indepth analysis and observation of the “CBS Evening News,” “NBC Nightly News,” Newsweek, and Time, Herbert Gans reported that journalists based their reporting on their inherent assumptions about the nature of external reality.
He called these assumptions, enduring values. Herbert J. Gans, Deciding What's News : A Study of CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News, Newsweek, and Time (Medill Visions of the American Press) , Constable, 1980. Eight Enduring Values
Eight Enduring Values Ethnocentrism
– We tend to value our own country and culture above all others. – Ex. Americans value their own nation above all others.
– Democracy is the best form of government, and government officials should behave altruistically and citizens should be involved at the grassroots level.
– Unions and consumer organizations are accepted as countervailing pressures on business and are judged negatively.
– Economic growth is a positive phenomenon; government regulation is bad. Eight Enduring Values Eight Enduring Values cont’d Smalltown Pastoralism
– The rural and antiindustrial value of Jefferson are found in the news. Nature and smallness are desirable—environmentalism.
– Preservation of the freedom of the individual, “rugged individualism” and selfmade people are admired.
– Discourages excess or extremism. Eight Enduring Values Eight Enduring Values cont’d The value of Social Order
– Seen primarily in coverage of social disorder
– When media cover disorder, the focus is on restoration of order
The media value Leadership
– The media tend to look at the actions of leaders while the actions of lowerlevel bureaucrats are often ignored. (Trend to report on Individualism above) Bias
Bias Both liberals and conservatives argue that since both sides criticize the press, they must be doing a good, balanced job (Hanson, 2007)
If there is bias in the news, it is probably toward these eight values as much as it is liberal or conservative.
– With the exception of Fox News and MSNBC
– And most blogs and blog aggregators such as The Huffington Post The Elements of The Elements of Journalism *
6. Journalism’s first obligation is to the truth.
Its first loyalty is to citizens.
Its essence is a discipline of verification.
Its practitioners must maintain an independence from those they cover.
It must serve as an independent monitor of power.
It must provide a forum for public criticism and compromise. Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel, The Elements of Journalism: What Newspeople Should Know and the Public Should Expect, Crown Publishers, 2001. The Elements of Journalism, Cont’d.
The Elements of Journalism, Cont’d.
9. It must strive to make the significant interesting and relevant.
It must keep the news comprehensive and proportional.
Its practitioners must be allowed to exercise their personal conscience. The Elements of The Elements of Journalism “Kovach and Rosensteil contend that newsgathering and reporting on the Web, or any other platform, can be measured against these principles. They acknowledge that reporters won’t meet each standard on every story, but those who succeed more often than they fail are worthy of being called journalists.” Robert Berkman, Digital Dilemmas, p. 69 Hanson’s “Seven Truths”
7. The media are essential components of our lives
There are no Main Stream Media
Everything from the margin moves to the center
Nothing’s new: Everything that has happened will happen again
New media are always scary
Activism and Analysis are not the same thing
There is no “They” Media Debate Topics for the Semester
Freedom of SpeechAt What Cost?
Media Conglomeration Is Negative Campaigning Bad for the American Political Process?
Is Public Relations Valuable to Society?
Is Televisions Harmful for Children?
Do the mass media perpetuate ethnic and racial stereotypes?
The Ethics of Photographs
Are the News Media Liberal?
Is Advertising Ethical?
Is Downloading Helping or Hurting the Music Industry?
Rape Victim’s Names ...
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- Fall '11