Temporary Pavlik and McIntosh Photos, Interactive, Networks, 6,7,8

Temporary Pavlik and McIntosh Photos, Interactive, Networks, 6,7,8

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Unformatted text preview: Converging Media A New Introduction to Mass Communication Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Information Overload, Usability, and Interactive Media Copyright © 2011, Oxford University Press, Inc. Information Storage Information Storage • Storage technology: Any type of device or medium in which information can be kept for later retrieval Information Storage Information Storage Five key characteristics 1. Longevity 2. Capacity 3. Portability 4. Accessibility 5. Reproducibility Longevity Longevity • Information­storage technologies have often sacrificed longevity for increases in capacity or portability • Petroglyphs have lasted thousands of years • Cinema film stock disintegrates after less than a century Capacity Capacity • By sacrificing longevity, we have expanded capacity enormously • Diskette: 1.2 MB, much larger than a book in a smaller physical space • CD­ROM: 700 MB • DVD: 4.7 GB Portability Portability • Cave paintings • Stone or clay tablets • Papyrus and parchment • Paper • Kindle: Stores 200 books in portable format Accessibility Accessibility • Many devices limited to power source • International standards change rapidly • Remote viewing • Speed of transmission Reproducibility Reproducibility • Digital technology offers radical improvement • Render information into bit patterns that can be copied • Reproduction can even improve information by removing noise Electronic vs. Nonelectronic Electronic vs. Nonelectronic • Mediated communication: Communication that involves a process by which a message is transmitted via some form or medium Electronic vs. Nonelectronic Electronic vs. Nonelectronic • Sequential­access memory: Requires users to work through entire volume to find something • Random­access memory: Allows users to randomly obtain specific pieces of content by doing searches Social and Political Impact Social and Political Impact • Western world profoundly shaped by qualities of media storage: papyrus, printing, etc. • Stone or clay tablets favored centralized administrations with concentrated knowledge • Papyrus allowed broader access to knowledge, facilitating a different kind of civilization Social and Political Impact Social and Political Impact • Printing laid foundation for literacy, advertising, and trade • Electronic storage plays important role — Kitchen debate July 24, 1959 Nixon and Kruschev (photo at http://www.kitchendebate.org/) — Watergate — Rodney King — Lewinsky tapes Social and Political Impact Social and Political Impact • Karl Rove’s violation of federal email policy • Sarah Palin’s use of Yahoo accounts • Facebook photos Search Engines Search Engines • Volumes of information require organized systems of retrieval • Google • Keyword auctions • Search engine optimization • Search engine marketing • Spiders and bots Search Engines Search Engines • Metasearch engines: Search a range of ordinary search engines • Vertical search engines: Focus on specialized areas of knowledge Social and Political Impact Social and Political Impact • Information overload • “Multitasking”: Limited attention span • Interruptions, reduced concentration User Interfaces User Interfaces • User interface: The junction between a medium and the people who use it • Interface transformation empowers the user User Interfaces User Interfaces Challenges • Limited time to evolve • Rapid changes in technology • Varying computer standards • Media/technology illiteracy Development of User Interfaces Development of User Interfaces •CRTs, like televisions — More flat screens now • Aspect ratios borrowed from TV • Remote controls — Greatly eased interaction with TVs — Multitasking Development of User Interfaces Development of User Interfaces • Punch cards • Keyboards • Printers • Electronic monitors • Mice • Speakers, to add sound • Microphones • Cameras Development of User Interfaces Development of User Interfaces • Touch­sensitive screens • Handwriting recognition • Voice recognition • Speech (turning text to sound) • Graphical user interface (GUI) • Desktop metaphor Implications of User Interface Implications of User Interface • Ease of access to information • Shifts user from passive to active • Influences ways media create, produce, and present stories • Led to commercialization of Web • Microsoft monopoly lawsuit Interactivity Interactivity • Audiences no longer passive • Users shape the form and presentation of information • Users select combinations of media (audio, video, text, photos, etc.) • Can access information for storage and later use Interactivity ** Interactivity ** Three elements 1. A dialog between a human and a computer program 2. The dialog affects the content, which changes as the dialog continues 3. The audience can control content and order in which it is received Interactive Media Interactive Media • Encourage users to learn and explore • Change the media experience for the users • Heighten engagement with media • Change the nature of a “story” • Let media companies monitor popularity of stories and responses to them Ethics of Interactive Media Ethics of Interactive Media • Trust • Trolling • Free speech • Trademark concerns • Advertising • Violence, other antisocial concerns • Search engine keywords — Metatags Privacy A father trying to stop images of his daughters injuries after her death (Are the images valuable to society?, Should the father’s wishes be considered?) Freedom of Speech, at what cost? Restrict free speech, at what cost? Electronic Privacy Information Center EPIC.com, and other emerging organizations Can the Internet kill you? Internet socializing has become widely popular, and Web sites that help people meet potential dates, find new friends and keep track of old ones are big business. Hundreds of sites attract millions of users, and more sites come online daily. Born along with the Internet in the early 1970’s, online socializing has helped people world­wide link to others with common interests for conversation and support. Nevertheless, social networking sites like Facebook and MySpace raise more troubling privacy issues than do traditional Internet chat rooms. Visitors to such sites can access not only individuals’ posted profiles but also those of their friends. Parents and law­enforcement agencies worry that predators can use the information to contact vulnerable teens. Is cyberspace more dangerous than real space? Consider more aspects than just the relationships, it's mostly about privacy Converging Media A New Introduction to Mass Communication Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Information Overload, Usability, and Interactive Media Copyright © 2011, Oxford University Press, Inc. Political Communication 4 Government models of The Press: Authoritarian Libertarian Social Responsibility Soviet (5) Emerging Governments/ Developing Nations ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2012 for the course COMMS 101 taught by Professor Lisaswenson during the Fall '11 term at BYU.

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