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Lecture 4-Neurology - Review Fluency Disorders Core...

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Review Fluency Disorders z Core features: syllable or sound repetitions or prolongations z Secondary features: bizarre gestures (grimaces, twitches, gaze shifts, unusual movements) z Often resolves itself in childhood z Cause is unknown and it may not have a single cause z Runs in families, more prevalent in males, occurs in all cultures, can be temporary. Otherwise no difference between those who stutter and those who don’t z Typically considered a disorder when both speaker and listener perceive it as a problem z Medical Model – one should treat causes of a disease, not just symptoms Review Motor Speech Disorders z Speech vs. Language Disorder z Dysarthria - neurologic speech disorder involving muscle control. Characteristics: Pronunciation, consistent errors Causes: Cerebral Palsy, Parkinson's disease, ALS, MS, TBI z Apraxia - trouble coordinating (sequencing) speech movements Characteristics: Syllable order, inconsistent errors Causes: Unknown, Childhood Apraxia z Assessment: Speech intelligibility – percentage of words understood by an average listener Overview: Neural Bases of Communication Gross Anatomy and Structure of the Brain Methods of Study Autopsy Electrode stimulation
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