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Unformatted text preview: Soc 120: Marriage and the Family
Lecture 9: Race I Prof. Elwert Review Class and status Conceptual distinction Absolute and relative poverty Family and economic inequality 1 Social Stratification & Family
(by education--read rest in textbook) Marriage Increase in median age at marriage across the board College grads marry latest but are also most likely to marry eventually ( catch up marriage ) Divorce Decrease among college grads Increase for low educ Fertility College grads: postpone childbirth and marriage (marriage and parenthood remain strongly coupled) Low educ: postpone marriage but not fertility (marriage and parenthood are decoupled) !Large increase in unmarried parenthood among low educ. Composition of the Poverty Population by Race/Ethnicity 4 2 Economic Status of Children by Race/Ethnicity 5 Preview (Lectures 9 &10) Race and the American Family Concepts What s race? What s ethnicity? Social construction of race/ethnicity African American families Trends and history Decline of marriage among African Americans Hispanic & Asian families Racial intermarriage 3 Some Numbers U.S. Race distribution in 2006 White: 65% Black: 12% Hispanic: 16% Asian: 5% Other: 2% Note: White and black are non-Hispanic; Hispanic may be of any race; Other includes Native American, and multiracial. 4 Race and Ethnicity What s the difference?
Race: Focus on physical features Ethnicity: Focus on culture, language, national origin Race and Ethnicity No absolute definitions Socially constructed Identity & self-classification, social inequality, power Definitions vary across time and place E.g. Italians, Irish, Hispanic, Asian in the U.S. Bi- and multiracial individuals One-drop rule One-drop rule: Until 1967, individuals with one drop of African American ancestry were legally considered black in many states. Today, legal definition has given way to racial and ethnic self classification Hypodescent: children of mixed parentage usually derive their racial classification from minority parent 5 History of African American Family Structure Considerable differences between average African American family and average European American family today Partially reflects drastic differences in history I.e., legacy of slavery, Reconstruction, Jim Crow, separate but equal, segregation Partially reflects present-day differences I.e., legacy of discrimination, sharp economic differences But history is complicated, let s take a closer look... Contemporary Pattern Later median age at marriage
28 vs 26 for black and white men (2000) Lower marriage probability
~65% vs ~90% of black and white women marry eventually More out-of-wedlock births
~70% vs ~30% if black and white children More single single-parent households
~50 vs ~20% of black and white households (recall Lecture 5) More extended family households 6 Percentage of family households that contain relatives other than parents and their children 13 African American children have long had a higher risk of living without both parents. The reasons are complicated and have changed over time! 7 Children African American children have had a higher risk of living without both parents since emancipation (fig. shows 1880-1980) Ruggles 1994. American Sociological Review. Marriage But until ~1950s, blacks married earlier than whites and were more likely to marry eventually! Fitch and Ruggles (2000) 8 Putting the two together High prevalence of single-parent families due to: Until mid 20th C: Marital instability, higher male mortality Legacy of slavery=>extreme poverty=>higher instability, mortality Strengthening of mother-child bond Destruction of father and husband role (Patterson 1998) Since mid 20th C: Late age at marriage Recall: black & white fertility today about equal. But African Americans (like low educ) have postponed marriage more than childbirth. Self-Study Self-study: review the material in Cherlin on extended families, kinship, and consequences of kinship among African Americans. Compare to material in Chapter 4. 9 Decline of Marriage Among African Americans Sharp decline in marriage among blacks since 50s Increase in marriage age & decrease in marriage probability Potential explanations Dearth of marriageable men (Wilson) Decline of manufacturing sector hurt black men Mass incarceration Cultural expectations (Edin & Kefalas) Paradoxically strong belief if traditional American family Value of children, high expectation of men as providers Welfare benefits? Welfare doesn't explain the decline. Marriage rates continued to fall even as welfare benefits decreased Decline in marriage is not very well explained Black-White Differences in Union Formation Note: black-white difference in union formation (i.e. cohabitation) is less pronounced than difference in marriage. Many so-called single parents live with the child s other parent (they re just not married) Single parent statistics overstate absence of second parent. [More on this late in the semester] 10 Hispanic Families Lower age at marriage than black & white Also true for Hispanics with lower SES Greater total fertility rate U.S. at replacement fertility (TFR=2.1) only because of high Hispanic fertility Immigration Great variation across Hispanics of different national origins Second generation stats approach non-Hispanic white stats Cherlin, Textbook (5th edition) 11 Asian Families Mostly post 1965 immigration Comparatively greater emphasis on nuclear family Filial loyalty Gender role differentiation Greater marital stability Probably assimilation in second and later generation A bit too early to tell Interracial Marriage History Moral panic about black-white intermarriage Most virulent 1860-1950 Honor of white girls is common pretext of lynching mobs Racial purity obsession with black m - white w Much less concern about white m - black w Paradoxically, interracial relationship easier in South during slavery But IM encouraged for whites + Native Americans 12 Anti-miscegenation laws Interracial marriage were most prosecuted aspect of race relations Early colonial statues in South Greatest activity 1860-1950s Most laws on black-white, but also against Malay / Mongol races in Western states IM illegal--penalties range from fine to prison Whites strongly anti-IM until late in 20th Century 1972: >39% whites favor anti-miscegenation laws 2000: 12% Also some unease in African American community midcentury 13 Changes Post-1948 Challenged after WWII Anti-miscegenation increasingly embarrassment to US (fighting Nazi ideology of master race, Nuremberg race laws ) Prosecution of black soldiers + white war brides Perez v CA, 1948--first repeal of state law Loving v Virginia 1967, repeal of all remaining statues But some Southern states kept anti-miscegenation in state constitutions until 2000! Today: no legal restrictions Source: maproll.blogspot.com (Students, do not rely on the internet for information--I verified this map against other sources to make sure it s correct.) 14 Racial Intermarriage Today Rapid rise of interracial marriage for all races since 1970, but still at low levels In 2000, among married 24-34 year olds 3% of whites 7% v 14% of black women and men 60% v 50% of Asian women and men ~50% of Hispanics in interracial/interethnic marriage IM is function of preferences and opportunity Drastic decrease in racism (own, parent, community) Availability of mates in marriage market (desegregation) Higher education facilitates IM IM as measure of strength of racial barriers Endogamy No race as isolated as African Americans (what does this mean?) 15 ...
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- Fall '11