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DISABILITY SUMMARY FORM Non-Presenters MUST complete and post to Drop Box BEFORE coming to Nature and Needs class. Bring hard copy or computer copy to class. Presenters will evaluate classmates’ information at the beginning of class, so they should come with a hard copy, ready to help others expand information on their summaries. DISABILITY: Mental Retardation (MR) Formal Definition and/or diagnostic criteria: IDEA defines mental retardation as, “significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, which adversely affects a child’s performance”. The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) advocates the usage of Intellectual Disability over Mental Retardation due to negative connotations of the word. AAIDD defines an intellectual disability as, “a state of functioning that describes the fit between an individual’s capabilities and the structure and expectations of the individual’s personal and social environment”. In order to determine if a student is mentally retarded, the student’s intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors are evaluated. The evaluation process includes observation, screening, and the IDEA nondiscriminatory evaluation process. Some tests that are typically used are ones similar to those that diagnose a learning disability, in particular the Weschsler Intelligence Scale for Children—IV. These tests determine if a student’s intellectual functioning is two standard deviations below the mean (the student meets the cutoff point for “significant limitation” in intellectual functioning). When taking into consideration a student’s adaptive behaviors, factors such as conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills are evaluated for their appropriateness to the student’s age and the environments typical of their community. These adaptive behavior evaluations rely heavily on information provided by an individual who is familiar with the student’s daily activities—such as the student’s teachers and/or parents. Prevalence including information on minority representation:
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