Study Guide Exam Two Chapters 4-7 Chapter 4- Civil Liberties 1. What are civil liberties?: Those rights, such as freedom of speech or religion, that are so fundamental that they are outside the authority of the government to regulate. 2. Relevance in constitution (ie, Bill of rights, why added, application of) 3. Selective incorporation: Doctrine used by the Supreme Court to make those provisions of the Bill of Rights that are fundamental rights binding on the states. 4. Freedom of speech: While the First Amendment declares that “Congress shall pass no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech,” the Court has never taken the phrase “no law” to literally mean “no law.” Today the Court allows limits on advocacy of unlawful activities, the use of fighting words, symbolic speech, and campaign spending. 5. Libel : a published false statement that is damaging to a person's reputation; a written defamation. 6. Free exercise clause: protects freedom of religion 7. writ of habeas corpus a. writ of habeas corpus: Right of individuals who have been arrested and jailed to go before a judge, who determines if their detention is legal b. It also prohibits ex post facto laws, which make something a crime after the act was committed, and bills of attainder, legislative acts that declare individuals guilty of a crime. 8. establishment clause: prohibits governmental establishment of religion Chapter 5- Civil Rights 1. What are civil rights: Set of Rights centered around the concept of equal treatment that government is obliged to protect.
2. Plessy v. Ferguson: Supreme court case that upheld validity of segregation 3. Dred Scott v. Sandford : supreme court desciosn declaring that blacks couldnt be citizens and congress couldnt ban slavery in the territories 4. Jim Crow Laws: Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. All were enacted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures after the Reconstruction period. The laws were enforced until 1965. 5. Voting barriers: people were restricted from voting 6. Equal protection: Amendment): Prevents states from denying any person the equal protection of the laws. 7. Brown v. Board: Supreme Court decision striking down segregated schools Chapter 6- Public Opinion 1. Public opinion and democracy: The core demand of civil rights is equal opportunity under the law. When laws discriminate or allow discrimination, people are eff ectively excluded from civic life. The demands for equal opportunity are often made to government, which alone has the authority to prohibit discrimination. 2. Random sample methods, accuracy : The core demand of civil rights is equal opportunity under the law. When laws discriminate or allow discrimination, people are eff ectively excluded from civic life. The demands for equal opportunity are often made to government, which alone has the authority to prohibit discrimination.
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- Fall '20
- Supreme Court of the United States, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, United States Bill of Rights