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Unformatted text preview: Exam 2 Study Guide: Phonetics & Phonology The Mid-Term will be a closed book in class exam that will last the entire class time (11:00 12:20). You are expected to know and understand the concepts presented: Lecture 7 (by Dani Bird) on Phonetics (PDF notes available on Bb) Lectures 8 and 9 (slides available on Bb) TA Section on Phonology (Hand out) NB: The IPA charts for the vowels and consonants of English will be both provided to you on the text pages!!! In studying for this exam, make sure you review the following: 1. what is the McGurk effect and what does it show 2. what is lack of segmentability and what is lack of invariance 3. when are two speech sounds contrastive in a given language we say that two sounds s1 and s2 are contrastive in a given language when their difference is linguistically significant to the speakers of that language. This happens when the choice of one or the other in a given string of sounds containing it is relevant for the speakers in order to know what word they are looking at. In other words two sounds are contrastive in language l if you can find a minimal pair involving them (bit vs pit differ only in the choice between p and b, but the meaning is very different p and b are contrastive in English). In different languages different pairs of sounds are contrastive ( /p/ and /ph/ are not contrastive in English but they are contrastive in Hindi! 4. English speech sounds: a. Consonants vs Vowels: In the articulation of consonants there is some degree of constriction of the vocal tract at place of articulation. In the articulation of vowels there is no constriction. (i) Consonants Can be distinguished from one other on the base of Place of Articulation (P.o.A):
Where airflow is blocked. 1 In the exam, you should be able to use the IPA chart and remember the any additional information provided in the lectures and sections1 in order to identify for each sound its place of articulation and to see similarities and difference among sounds in terms of their place of articulation. Voicing
Whether or not the vocal folds are vibrating when you say a sound. In the exam, you should be able to use the IPA chart to establish for each sound whether it is or not voiced Manner This refers to how the air is flowing. Stop: airflow is blocked completely in the oral cavity, and then explodes
Fricative: air is flowing through a small space, creating a hiss. Affricate: a combination of stop and fricative. Start with a stop, But instead of a clean explosion, it goes through a fricative. Nasal: airflow is cut off through the mouth (they are stops!) and redirected to the nasal cavity. Liquids: very little obstruction of the airflow. The tongue positions itself and air flows around it. Glides (or semi-vowels): very little obstruction. Articulators `close' together and then pull apart letting the sound glide off them In the exam, you should be able to use the IPA chart to establish for each sound what is its manner of articulation and how sounds group together on the basis of manner. So, generally: with the help of the IPA charts you should be able to reconstruct for any given consonant a three parts description (its p.o.a., manner and voice value), that is you should be able to identify the features that make up speech sounds and use this information to recognize similarities and differences within groups of sounds. (1) Vowels
Tongue position: The main features are determined by where your tongue is. This can be very difficult to feel, and it's best to memorize these features. NB: All vowels involve vibration of the vocal folds: they are all voiced!
1 Remember: some information regarding sound features is only indirectly recoverable from the charts; e.g. consonants that are divided in two different columns share labiality, all nasals are stops, all vowels are voiced, etc. These features have been introduced in class! 2 h eight: high, mid, and low tongue position In the exam, you should be able to use the IPA chart to establish for each vowel whether it is a high, mid or low vowel.
frontness & backness: front, central, and back tongue position In the exam, you should be able to use the IPA chart to establish for each vowel whether it is a front, central or back vowel
Tense vs. Lax: some sounds are pronounced with more energy. These are tense sounds. Not all languages have tense and lax vowels. In the exam, you should be able to use the IPA chart to establish for each vowel whether it is tense or lax
Rounding: Whether or not your lips are rounded while pronouncing a vowel. English back vowels (with the exception of [a]) are rounded, In the exam, you should be able to use the IPA chart to establish for each vowel whether it is rounded In general: for any given vowel you should be able to reconstruct a four parts description (height-whether it is high, mid or low- its backness whether it is front, central or back- its tenseness-whether it is tensed or lax- and whether it involves lip rounding or not) and use this information to see differences and similarities between vowels in a given group. 5. Phonological Processes: On the basis of your ability to recognize the main features of speech sounds (witht the help of the IPA charts) you are expected to be able to recognize the very few types of phonological processes presented in the lectures (like voicing assimilation in the plural English morphology, place assimilation of /n/ in the prefix /in/, aspiration of voiceless stops in English etc.) and delimit the phonological properties of the environment on which they occur (e.g. in syllable initial position, when followed by a stop etc) 3 ...
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- Spring '07